Wagons: types of wagons. Classification of wagons in RZD trains

Wagons are a unit of rolling stock intended for the transport of people or the transport of goods. In this regard, they are divided into freight and passenger. In addition to railway, there are also passenger cars intended for subways. Each species is represented by several types and models that provide different conditions for transportation.

Passenger cars on trains of Russian Railways

For transportation of people the passenger cars are intended. Types of cars here are distinguished by the following: general (sessile 1 and 2 classes), reserved seats, compartment, SU (Suite) and Premium (VIP), and also indicate a dining car, luggage and postal. In addition, there are several categories that indicate the existence of certain advantages. And, of course, the class of service can be different.

Wagons without sleeping berths

Let us consider in detail the carriages carrying passengers directly. Types of cars depend on the conditions created in them. Sitting is equipped with seats arranged in rows with a passage in the middle, which makes the saloon look like an airplane. In a suburban message, hard chairs can be installed, in the interregional - soft. In the first class only 10 seats, more spacious and additional services are provided more than in business or economy classes, where there can be 43-68 seats.

A common car is a reserved seat, but the people in it ride three or more on each lower shelf, the top ones are simply not used or not at all. Sedent and generic at the same time are inconvenient for long trips. The other types of passenger cars provide for berths, so they are more suitable for similar purposes.

Wagons with sleeping places

A reserved passenger car provides for open compartments for passengers, on the one hand, two lower and two upper seats, and opposite through the passage there are also 2 lateral ones (also upper and lower). Under the lower seats a place for luggage is provided. There are two folding tables - in an open compartment and on the side.

Coupe cars are divided into 9 4-seater compartments with sliding doors that can be locked. In each compartment there is a pair of upper and lower berths, luggage compartments below the bottom seats, a folding table and a radio. Bed linen and towels are provided. Additionally, air conditioning can be provided. Soft cars are the same compartment, but more comfortable and comfortable.

Comfortable sleeping cars

SV (or a luxury passenger car) are also divided into 9 compartments, but with two sleeping places, usually the lower ones. Otherwise, the configuration of the coupe is similar to the usual, but provides more comfort. Be sure to have air conditioning.

The premium cars are divided into 4-5 large sized couches with different layout, furnished for a comfortable journey. For example, they can be with a convertible sofa bed or a double bed. It often provides not only a place for storing luggage and a table, but also an armchair, a bio toilet, a wash basin, a shower, air conditioning, a closet, a TV, DVD and WiFi. In one of the compartments can also be a lounge bar. Sometimes there is only one shower for the whole car. A number of additional services are included in the price: linen, press, snacks and drinks, as well as toiletries. The coupe is calculated for 1-2 people, but in any case a whole compartment is purchased, without a population.

Freight cars

Freight trains are designed for cargo transportation by rail. Since various goods and substances can be transported, according to the nature of the goods, the cars are also selected. Types of cars characterize the basic properties, and features are realized in specific models. Different types and models are designed each for certain categories of cargo, have a different body structure, differ in the ways of loading and unloading, provide a certain degree of safety.

The main types of freight cars

The cars differ both externally and their characteristics and capabilities. Among the most popular are the following types of freight cars: covered, gondola cars, platforms, cisterns, hoppers, isothermal and refrigerated, thermoses. They may differ in shape, linear dimensions, volume, floor area, carrying capacity and tare mass.

The most simple cars

Covered cars are structurally composed of a frame with a floor, walls along the perimeter and roof. For loading and unloading, there are doors in the side walls. They allow transportation of cargoes, protecting them from atmospheric precipitation and other unfavorable external influences. Such a freight car can transport both piece goods, and grain, cars and even animals. Typically, the carrying capacity is 25-72 tons.

Gondola cars consist of a frame with a floor and walls, but without a roof. Often they transport minerals, metals, timber. Designed for the transport of loose goods, gondola cars can have additional hatches in the floor or walls to facilitate unloading. Loading is carried out from above. Protections from atmospheric precipitation do not usually exist, but there are options with a removable roof. Four-axle conveyors carry 22-75 tons, and eight-axles carry a carrying capacity of 69-130 tons.

The platforms are designed for the transportation of containers, long cargo, metal structures, machinery, equipment, machinery, wood and bulk cargo, which need not be protected from atmospheric precipitation. Lifting capacity reaches 70-73 tons.

Wagons for specific loads

Tanks - a few specific cars. Types of cars are externally sometimes similar, but the data most often have a cylindrical shape with one or more hatches from above. They have increased tightness, because they carry liquid liquid cargo, as well as powdered substances and liquefied gases. In addition, tanks can be equipped with a thermal insulation coating or even equipment for heating the cargo, and special instruments are installed for monitoring. The four-axle ones have a carrying capacity of 60-65 tons, and eight-axles carry up to 120-125 tons.

Hoppers are wagons of a special shape, wider from above and slightly tapering below, intended for bulk loads like grain, fertilizers, cement, ore, coal, etc. From below they are equipped with a hatch, and the form facilitates self-discharge. Can be open or closed, with hatches for loading on the roof. Carrying capacity up to 70 tons.

Wagons with special temperature conditions

Isothermal covered wagons are equipped with heat insulation based on polyurethane foam or polystyrene, cooling system and forced air circulation system. They allow you to transport perishable products, since they maintain the necessary temperature.

Thermoses carry non-perishable food products in packages and containers, as well as some perishable goods, keeping a certain temperature for a long time, created during loading.

Refrigerators provide transportation of perishable goods, which can be stored for a long time only at low temperatures. They do not just keep the temperature like a thermos, but cool or heat the space inside the car to the right temperature. Calculated for 25-40 tons.

Variety of models of goods wagons

It should be noted that there is a wide choice of all kinds of models that provide all types of cars. Cisterns, for example, many species with different designs and additional features. There are such cars for milk, gasoline, alcohol, oil products, pesticides, powders, liquefied gases, acids, etc. And each cargo requires a number of conditions, which affects the appearance and arrangement of the tank. The same is true for other types of cars.

Types of subway cars

Their cars are also used for the subway. There are several types that are in operation now. For example, in the capital on the route there are such types of subway cars as the "E" series with modifications, the series 81-717 / 714, "Yauza" (81-720 / 721), "Rusich" (81-740 / 741) and Series 81-760 / 761. Perhaps, somewhere earlier versions are used.

Series "E" was produced in the sixties, but it is used, including with modifications, until now. In the car there are 42 seats, although the capacity is up to 270 people. The series 81-717 / 714 is produced since 1977, it provides 40-44 seats and is designed for 308-330 people. "Yauza" is even more modern: it has been manufactured since 1991, also providing 40-44 seats, and in general accommodating up to 330-350 people. Since 2002, "Rusich" has been issued, providing already 54-60 seats or 344-370 seats in total. The cars were seriously modernized in 2007-2008, as a result of which the model 81-717.6К / 714.6К appeared, more comfortable for the driver, equipped with a more efficient ventilation system, for which the best materials and technologies were used.

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