Political power is the direct and obligatory content of politics. However, it is not enough to ensure the indivisibility of society, to reconcile various interest groups among themselves, to keep the system stable, while contributing to its development, to react quickly in case of imminent danger. The main thing in politics is not what power, but what it performs functions and how well. And this is expressed in practice in the work of parties, coercive bodies and state institutions. The whole process of organizing political power and its functioning is defined by the term "political system". Its content includes a set of institutions that exercise power. It also includes all forms of communication between the subjects of management and its objects.
When the concept of "political system" was introduced into use, it meant that politics began to be understood as an independent field in science. The interconnection of all processes and structures began to be realized. To find out what changes have occurred, whether it is capable of ensuring stability and maintaining balance in interest groups, it is necessary to take into account some circumstances. First, only interaction with the non-political world gives meaning to politics. And secondly, this is that it is a sphere that is practically independent and has features of the system. And all its elements are so interconnected that a change in one will entail a change in their totality.
Introduced the notion of "system" in scientific usage in the early 20th century German biologist. He represented it as a collection of interacting elements. But not a decade passed before the system approach was used in practice in the social sciences .
His development in political science was due to a change in the perception of the processes taking place in the political sphere, its inextricable link with the non-political world. This theory was the answer to the prevailing practice of considering all the elements separately, and not in their totality. After all, awareness of the connection between politics and other spheres of life came to political science not immediately. The whole life of society was within its scope and was subordinate only to the state. It was solely engaged in the distribution of values and resources. But together with the emergence of civil society institutions, a multitude of interests of all groups of the population appeared.
On this basis, specialization within the society of political functions and roles began to occur. It is impossible to understand the reasons for this distribution without taking into account the cultural life of the society and its mentality. The concept of "political system" replaced the concept of the state and allowed to take into account the influence on the functioning of the political world of informal mechanisms. It also provided an opportunity to understand the interaction and interconnection of civil society and political behavior and culture.
This concept was first introduced by American scientists. The political system is understood by them widely and denotes the totality of all structures of society in their political manifestations, and also characterizes the interaction of society with the authorities. American political scientist G. Almond made some additions to the definition of this concept. According to him, the political system contains not only political institutions, but also economic and social structures. In addition, it includes the values and traditions of society that have developed historically, as well as the background of its cultural development.
Modern political systems that exist in the world are very diverse. This indicates that their subsystems, forming integrity, are interdependent and interrelated among themselves in various ways. The mechanism that dominates this interaction is the basis for typologizing a particular political system.