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Political institutions as forms of human activity

Political institutions are stable forms of human activity that have evolved in the course of historical development. They can have a variety of formats and types. Institutionalization involves the creation of organizations or trends that streamline political activity. The state itself, the most diverse parties, the church, socio-political organizations or movements are political institutions. Each of them is a subject of politics. He realizes his activities through the initiative of leaders, formal or informal leaders. Institutions for the realization of their activities generate organizations or institutions that require a certain political behavior, the corresponding political system and supporting it.

The term is literally translated as "establishment", it should be distinguished from organizations and political institutions. Political institutions are not a circle of people connected with views or aspirations, but a whole complex of norms, attitudes, rules, both formal and informal, designed to organize the political system as a whole, to normalize its functioning.

The political system experts call the general set of all subjects associated with power, united by a normative-value basis. This definition points to the heterogeneity of the concept of "political system", on the basis of this, we can conclude that political institutions can also be different. This is actually so.

  • Relativistic institutions determine the structure of the political system.
  • Regulatory, forming a framework for political action, norms of personal behavior, sanctions designed to punish people who have gone beyond this framework.
  • Cultural, defining political roles, responsible for the interests of individual communities as a whole.

Political institutions are dynamic in nature. They develop together with society, they change under the influence of many factors. So, change can cause new knowledge, change of views on cultural heritage, moral values , etc.

It is generally accepted that all international political institutions are subject to two kinds of changes: endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous factors are located within the political system. This can be the development of existing organizations, the expansion of the concept of their activities, the emergence of new institutions or the improvement of existing ones. Endogenous changes take place because existing institutions no longer can fully meet the needs of certain groups or communities.

Exogenous are caused by changes in culture, outlook, value system or as a result of innovative or innovative activity of individuals. Especially strong exogenous changes occur under the influence of a change in the ways of assessing the political reality that exists.

Such a change and development of political institutions facilitate their transformation from traditional to modern.

Traditional political institutions are characterized by strict limits, rituals recommended by political behavior. Modern are more specialized. They admit the existence of independence, political commendation, rationality, require personal responsibility. They are largely independent of moral precepts, and their structure is more motivational.

Today's political institutions allow freedom of choice, often entailing disobedience to the formal order and a phenomenon that political scientists call "unconfiguration" of the person or, if easier, political alienation.

The prerequisite for the emergence of political institutions is the emergence of social, different in their orientation communities, in need of structuring and management.

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