Peter 3: a brief biography. Biography of Emperor Peter III Fedorovich
Historical personalities, especially if it concerns a native country, are always studied with interest. The reigning persons who stood at the helm of power in Russia exerted their influence on the development of the country. Some of the kings ruled for many years, others - for a short time, but all the people were noticeable, interesting. Emperor Peter 3 did not rule for long, died early, but left his mark in the history of the country.
The desire of Elizabeth Petrovna, reigning in the Russian throne from 1741, to strengthen the throne along the lines of Peter the Great, led to the fact that she declared the heir to her nephew. She did not have any children, but her older sister had a son who lived in the house of Adolf Frederick, in the future - the King of Sweden.
Carl Peter, nephew of Elizabeth, was the son of the eldest daughter of Peter I - Anna Petrovna. Immediately after childbirth, she fell ill and soon died. When Carl Peter turned 11 years old, he lost his father. Having lost his parents, Peter 3, whose brief biography speaks of this, began to live with his uncle on his father's side - Adolf Frederick. He received no proper education and education, as the main method of educators was a "whip".
He had to stand for a long time in the corner, sometimes on peas, and the boy swelled from this knee. This all postponed the imprint on his health: Carl Peter was a nervous child, often sick. By nature, Emperor Peter 3 grew up a simple-minded person, not evil, and was very fond of military affairs. But at the same time, historians note: while in adolescence, he liked to drink wine.
Heir to Elizabeth
And in 1741, Elizabeth Petrovna ascended to the Russian throne. From this moment the life of Karl Peter Ulrich has changed: in 1742 he became the heir of the empress, and he was brought to Russia. Impression of the Empress, he made a depressing: she saw in him a morbid and uneducated youth. By adopting Orthodoxy, he was named Peter Fedorovich, and in the days of his reign, the official name was Peter III Fedorovich.
For three years, educators and teachers were engaged with him. His main teacher was academician Jakob Stätel. He believed that the future emperor is a capable youth, but very lazy. After all, for three years of study he very poorly mastered the Russian language: he wrote and wrote illiterately, he did not learn traditions. Peter Fedorovich liked to brag and was inclined to cowardice - these qualities were noted by his teachers. In the official title it was the words: "The grandson of Peter the Great."
Peter 3 Fedorovich - marriage
In 1745 the marriage of Peter Fedorovich took place. His wife was Princess Ekaterina Alekseevna. She also received her name after the adoption of Orthodoxy: her maiden name is Sofia Frederick August Anhalt-Zerbstskaya. It was the future Empress Catherine II.
The wedding gift from Elizabeth Petrovna was Oranienbaum, which is near St. Petersburg, and Moscow Lyubertsy. But marital relations between the newlyweds do not add up. Although in all important economic and economic matters, Pyotr Fyodorovich always consulted with his wife, he felt her trust.
Life before the coronation
Peter 3, a brief biography of him speaks about this, had no marital relations with his wife. But later, after 1750, he underwent a surgical operation. As a result, they had a son, who in the future became Emperor Paul I. Elizabeth Petrovna personally engaged in the education of her grandson, immediately taking it from her parents.
Peter was pleased with this state of affairs and more and more alienated from his wife. He was fond of other women and even had a favorite - Elizabeth Vorontsov. In turn , Catherine, in order to avoid loneliness, had a relationship with the Polish ambassador - Stanislaw August Poniatowski. The couple were in friendly relations among themselves.
The birth of a daughter
In 1757, Catherine's daughter is born, and she is given a name - Anna Petrovna. Peter 3, whose brief biography proves this fact, officially recognized his daughter. But historians, of course, have a doubt about his paternity. In 1759, at the age of two, the child fell ill and died of smallpox. There were no other children with Peter.
In 1958, Pyotr Fyodorovich had in his subordination a garrison of soldiers of up to 1,500. And all his free time he gave himself to his favorite occupation: he was training soldiers. The reign of Peter 3 is not yet arrived, but he has already evoked to himself the hostile attitude of the nobility and the people. The reason for all this was an undisguised sympathy for the King of Prussia, Friedrich II. His regret that he became the heir of the Russian tsar, and not the Swedish king, the reluctance to accept Russian culture, the bad Russian language, all together set up the masses against Peter.
The reign of Peter 3
After the death of Elizabeth Petrovna, at the end of 1761, Peter III was proclaimed emperor. But he had not yet been crowned. What kind of policy did Pyotr Fedorovich pursue? In his domestic policy he was consistent and took as a model the policy of his grandfather - Peter I. Emperor Peter 3, briefly, decided to become the same reformer. What he managed to do during his short reign, laid the foundation for the reign of his wife - Catherine.
But a number of mistakes were made to them in foreign policy: he stopped the war with Prussia. And those lands that the Russian army had already conquered in East Prussia, he returned to King Frederick. In the army, the emperor introduced all the same Prussian orders, was going to conduct secularization of the land of the church and its reform, was preparing for a war with Denmark. By these actions, Peter 3 (a short biography proves this), he set up against himself and the church.
The unwillingness to see Peter on the throne was expressed before his ascension. Even under Elizaveta Petrovna, Chancellor Bestuzhev-Ryumin began to plot a plot against the future emperor. But it so happened that the conspirator fell into disgrace and did not finish his work. Against Peter, shortly before the death of Elizabeth, an opposition was formed, consisting of: NI Panin, MN Volkonsky, KP Razumovsky. They were joined by officers of two regiments: Preobrazhensky and Izmailovsky. Peter 3, briefly, should not have ascended to the throne, instead they were going to erect Catherine, his wife.
These plans could not be realized because of the pregnancy and birth of Catherine: she gave birth to a child from Grigory Orlov. In addition, she believed that the policy of Peter III discredited him, but would give her more companions. By tradition, in May Peter went to Oranienbaum. June 28, 1762 he went to Peterhof, where he was to meet Catherine and arrange a celebration in his honor.
But instead she hurried to St. Petersburg. Here she took an oath of allegiance from the Senate, the Synod, the Guard and the masses. Then he swore to Kronstadt. Peter III returned to Oranienbaum, where he signed his abdication.
The End of the reign of Peter III
Then he was sent to Ropsha, where a week later he died. Or was deprived of life. This no one can neither prove nor disprove. Thus ended the reign of Peter III, which was very short and tragic. He ruled the country only 186 days.
They ravaged him in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra: Peter was not crowned, and therefore he could not be buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. But the son, Paul I, becoming the emperor, corrected everything. He crowned the remains of his father and reburied them next to Catherine.