Railway transport is one of the most convenient and affordable modes of transport that are used by millions of people. On the territory of the Russian Federation, thanks to the possibilities of the railway, thousands of transportations of passengers and cargoes are carried out daily. Modern technological progress makes it possible to use the pulling force of locomotives as efficiently as possible, thus ensuring a high level of economy and speed of transportation. Therefore, diesel locomotives of Russia should be carefully considered in order to understand their advantages and technical characteristics.
A Brief Historical Reference
The first technical designs of locomotives on our open spaces appeared at the dawn of the 20th century. Diesel locomotives of Russia of that time were "born" in 1905 thanks to engineer Kuznetsov and Colonel Odintsov, who pioneered the technical society, presenting a report on an autonomous electric locomotive with a caloric engine for public inspection.
In 1930, taking into account the development of machine building, the training of diesel locomotive specialists was started on the basis of the Moscow Electromechanical Institute. And already since 1950, the production of diesel locomotives was organized at several major enterprises of the machine-building industry.
Diesel locomotives of Russia and the world are differentiated on the basis of several signs.
So, according to the nature of their service, there is a division into:
- Performing various works.
Also distinguish locomotives and disembodied diesel locomotives. There are differences in these aggregates and in the number of sections, which can be either one or several.
Principle of operation and basic structural elements
Diesel locomotives of Russia (actually, like the rest of the world) work on this basic principle. The diesel engine of these transport devices transforms the chemical energy that occurs at the time of fuel combustion into mechanical energy-the rotation of the crankshaft, from which, in turn, through the traction gear, the rotation is transmitted directly to the wheel pairs. The key point is that you need a clear reconciliation of the characteristics of the diesel and the locomotive itself. To this end, special programs have been set up that enabled diesel locomotives to be operated.
The main units of the locomotive are: frame, body, diesel, transmission, running gear, braking system, automatic couplings. Among the auxiliary devices are: cooling system, diesel air supply, fire extinguishing system, electrical equipment.
Types of used gear in locomotives
The railway transport of Russia operates on the basis of the following programs, namely:
If we talk about the mechanical transmission, it should be pointed out that it is endowed with a sufficiently high efficiency, low self-weight, ease of maintenance. However, she also has a drawback, which consists in the inevitable occurrence of jerks at the time of the gear change.
Electric transmission provides a much smoother adjustment of the speed of the locomotive, but it has a high weight and high cost of components.
The finest speed control gear is hydraulic. But it is extremely demanding on the cleanliness of the working fluid and the quality of its maintenance, although the resource of its work is many times more than a mechanical analog.
The mechanical part of the locomotive
How smoothly the locomotive will move along the rails depends on the design of its crew (mechanical) part, which includes: trolleys with wheel pairs, axle boxes with springs (the main frame is located on them), the body (holds all the remaining equipment on itself).
The diesel locomotive pairs can be driven (driven) and runner (idle). Railway transport in Russia today mainly uses moving pairs of wheels.
The modern Russian railway
In the current severe economic realities, Russian Railways plays an extremely important role in filling the country's budget. Taking into account this fact, the manufacturers of this equipment make every effort to increase its efficiency and reduce costs. So, in Bryansk machine-building plant in 2015 new main diesel locomotives 2ТЭ25КМ were created. This model provides an increase in the mass of transported compounds, reduces their performance. Engineers managed to significantly increase the utilization rate of the diesel engine. The driver's cab is in compliance with all international requirements for comfort and safety. A passive protection system is also used that can reliably protect the locomotive crew from injuries in the event of an emergency collision. There is also an air-conditioning system. A special independent heater, if necessary, warms up the air to the required temperature.
In order to increase the comfort of the personnel, these new locomotives are equipped with materials on a vibration damping basis. The level of ergonomics of the cabin has been significantly increased. All major sites are easily accessible for maintenance. This fact allows significantly reducing the downtime of the locomotive in the depot during its planned repair or current inspection during the trip.
At the presentation of 2TE25KM, which was held in April 2015, there was the head of RZD Yakunin, the president of Transmashholding Bokarev, and. about. Governor of the Bryansk region Bogomaz.
Efficiency of railway transport
In general, RZD trains provide about 80% of the country's total turnover and more than 40% of passenger traffic, both in suburban and long-distance traffic.
Such high indicators are supported by the advantages of railway transport, which consist in the following moments:
- High carrying capacity.
- Effective transport of bulk cargo over long distances.
- Reliability and safety.
- Relatively low cost of transportation.
- Minimally harmful effects on the environment and the atmosphere.
Trends in the development of the market
Modern Russian engineering in the face of leading manufacturers is actively exploring new markets, sending its products to the most diverse countries of the world. At the same time, the technical characteristics of new products are in no way inferior to their foreign counterparts. In detail to consider new models of diesel locomotives in an article on the photo. The locomotives of Russia, produced by the aforementioned Transmashholding, are now quite actively being implemented in Asian countries, such as Uzbekistan. In particular, the diesel locomotives of the holding company will have to contribute to the implementation of a large-scale program aimed at modernizing the railway transport of this Central Asian country.
Summarizing, it can be noted that the development of rail transport will be dynamic. The advantages described above clearly signal the rationality of investing money in the development and implementation of new diesel locomotives that can fulfill their functions in any weather and climate conditions.