Today we will talk about the famous tractor MTZ-80. We discuss its main characteristics and modifications.
History of creation
The construction of tractors MTZ 80/82 began after the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union was issued number 606, in which it was said that it was necessary to create a universal tractor, which belongs to the traction class 1.4, with an engine power of 75-85 horsepower.
To significantly reduce production costs and speed up the process of re-creation, the plant management decided to upgrade the MTZ 50/52 tractor. In the MTZ-50 itself, a large number of modifications were made. Among the external changes, it can be noted that the new MTZ-80 tractor received a new cabin trim, and, most importantly, a new modernized engine with a high power was installed on the tractor.
In early 1972, MTZ-80 passed its first tests, during which it was revealed that about 230 units and tools can be used for work. Due to the installation of a new engine, the speed of which is 2200 per minute, the speed of the MTZ-80 tractor has increased to 33 km / h, thanks to which transport operations can be carried out more quickly. Mass production The tractor of the new modification began in 1974. Photo of MTZ-80 tractor was published in local sources of information of the time.
a brief description of
The degree of similarity of the tractors "Belarus-50" and MTZ-80 equals to 70%, but it is worth noting that most assembly units are more modernized.
MTZ-80 almost does not differ from its predecessors: the semimouse transmission structure, the front engine location, the leading rear wheels are enlarged in diameter, the front wheel guides are reduced. The MTZ-80 tractor has only a rear-wheel drive, but the MTZ-82 is all-wheel drive.
On the "Belarus-80" are installed 4-stroke diesel engines models D-240 and D-243, which have four cylinders.
Manufacturer of these engines Minsk Engine Plant. This engine has a semi-divided combustion chamber and liquid cooling. The working volume is 4.75 liters, capacity 80 liters. With., Startup is performed using an electric starter, in some cases, the starting engine of the brand PD-10, its capacity is 10 liters. from.
On some engines, pre-start heaters of the PZHB-200B brand are sometimes installed.
But only a mechanical transmission is installed. The clutch is single-disk, constantly closed, dry. The transmission is presented in two stages and two ranges and is complemented by a reduction gear. Thus, there are 18 gears for forward and 4 reverse gears. It is possible to install a speed reducer.
On tractors produced after 1985, a hydraulically controlled transmission, which is switched by a load, that allows you to select one of the 4 gears within the included range, without switching off the clutch.
The rear axle has a differential with a locking function, the function is controlled using the pedal, which is located on the polish in the cockpit. On the newer tractors, the locking control is hydraulic, which allows for the switching of the mode without much effort.
Pneumatic equipment: distribution valve and compressor, which ensure the serviceability of the trailer brakes.
Electrical equipment: starter (for starting the engine), lighting, ventilation of the cabin (air conditioning), in some cases it is possible to install an alarm.
Hydraulic equipment: three-section slide valve valve, rear hydraulic cylinder, position and power regulator, gear pump of NSH-32 brand.
Repair of the tractor MTZ-80 does not require a lot of money and a lot of time, since all components are easily replaceable.
Modifications of the tractor "Belarus-80" a lot, below you will see the main ones:
- Belarus-80.1 - has a large cabin, it also has a rear-wheel drive as well as the MTZ-80.
- MTZ-82 and 82.1 - all-wheel drive, the second version is equipped with a large cabin.
- Belarus-82R - rice-growing tractor.
- Belarus-82K - designed to perform work on steep slopes (up to twenty degrees).
- Belarus-80 / 82V - differs from the basic version in that a reverse gear is installed on this model.
- Belarus-82 MK - is designed for the performance of public works.
- T-80L - used in the forest industry, installed a higher power engine, so the maximum speed is 36 km / h. Wheels are the same size.
The Saratov plant "Mossar" was engaged in the production of the model line of tractors "Belarus 80/82" in scale 1:43. In the sixth issue of the magazine "Tractors: History, People and Machines", a MTZ-80 tractor appeared in red, and in the twenty-ninth edition it was possible to buy a blue-colored MTZ-82. After several subsequent releases, a model of the MTZ-82R rice tractor will appear in blue color.
It is only necessary to ask yourself what is a tractor, and a photo of MTZ-80 tractor arises in the subconscious. This model for its existence has suffered many improvements and modifications, but remains the main in the agriculture and not only.