The preposition in Russian is a part of speech that is necessary in order to express syntactic connections of words or parts of speech. It does not have its own significant meaning, therefore it is considered an official element of speech.
In Russian there are two categories of such words: non-derivative and derivative prepositions.
With the first all is clear. They were formed during the evolution of the language, they are short words that can not be confused with other parts of speech or incorrectly written them. They usually consist of one word.
Proposals with prepositions non-productive in our speech occupy a significant place. For example: I'll come at six. Look at this house. I can not live without you. Walk on the edge. Tell about the new film.
Derived prepositions in Russian are also often encountered, but it is much more difficult to define them, and, moreover, to write correctly. By their meaning, they can also be temporary, spatial or causal.
Derived prepositions are prepositions that are formed from other parts of speech. Their significant significance and morphological features were lost for one reason or another, only the syntactic remains. They are most often used with a certain case. Distinguish from the significant parts of speech they can be with the help of a question. This is done approximately like this.
A school was built opposite my house. Have built (where?) Opposite the house. The word "opposite" does not have its own meaning, in this case it is a derivative preposition.
I live opposite the new school. I live (where?) Opposite (what?) School. The word "opposite" in this case has its own lexical meaning, and therefore it is an adverb.
Derived prepositions, like non-derivatives, can consist of one word (simple) or several (composite). For example: During the investigation, new details (compound) were found out. The rain was canceled due to the rain. (Plain).
Derived prepositions can:
- To designate a certain period of time. The sun was baking with great strength for a week. In the course of the investigation, she twice made unacceptable mistakes. Prepositions "in continuation" and "during" denote the time interval and are written only separately.
- To be close in meaning to an unproductive pretext because of. This concerns the preposition "due" and the pretext "in mind." "As a consequence", as a pretext, only always is written together. Compare: the walk was canceled due to rain. The walk was canceled because of the rain.
The preposition "In mind", on the contrary, is written separately. In view of illness, he does not leave the house. (Because of illness, he does not leave the house).
- Approach by value to a combination of "whatever." This refers to the derived preposition "despite", which is always written together. Compare: we went to the forest despite the weather. We will go to the forest, regardless of the weather.
- To be used in the meaning of the preposition "about". We agreed on additional lessons. (On additional lessons). The preposition "about" is always written together.
- Other examples. He left, thanking and bowing to the belt. Gone (how? How?) Thanks and bowing. The fact that this gerundance, say synonyms thanks - saying thank you. Bowing, bowing. Thanks to the decision, they won. (Because of the accepted ....)
Naturally, this is not all derivative prepositions that are used in Russian: here only a few of the most common are listed.
In order to correctly determine which part of the speech is the right word (and also to determine in its correct spelling), you can select synonyms for homonymous parts of speech .
For example. I put the money in the bank account. In this case, the account is a letter of credit, a savings account, i.е. noun. Therefore the preposition (on) + the noun (account) is written separately.
I agreed about the repair . "About" = "oh" (agreed on the repair). So this is a derivative preposition, it is written together.