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Arabic ornament. Ancient national ornament

To learn and understand the traditions of the people is possible only through its cultural and artistic heritage. The most ancient activity of man is the adornment with different images of himself, his clothes, home, various objects, tools, weapons. A widely used form of art is the ancient ornament. It can not be separated from the object on which it exists. But more often it is more valuable in itself and is a work of art. In style there are geometric, vegetative, in appearance - picturesque, sculptural, graphic ornaments. Any beautiful ornament carries a certain motif consisting of one or several elements. This set of elements in the ornament is always designed as a single work. By the way the images of the elements, by how the master created a pattern of patterns, how he combines motifs from flora or fauna with material or geometric motifs with the shape of the object, one can determine the cultural and historical roots of the ornament, belonging to its specific people.

And when the ornament is classified, it is first spoken of its origin, and then determines the purpose and content. The value of the ancient ornament, in all its national diversity, in the development of modern forms of applied art can not be overestimated.

Classification of the variety of ornaments

Drawings decorating pottery, and chasing on silver trays; Pattern of patterns on ancient self-made carpets, fabrics; A specially woven rope - ornaments of this type arose as a result of people's activities (as they later began to say - professional), and therefore are called technical. In the countries of the East, various symbols and signs were often woven into the ornament. This type was called symbolic. And the combination of symbols with complex technical elements without a certain plot gave a wide development to the geometric type. This is gothic and ornaments in Arabic style.

Vegetative type is considered the most widespread and ancient. The motifs here are from exact copies of flowers, fruits, leaves of plants to unrecognizable stylization. And here each people has their favorite and revered plants. Just like in animal designs, ancient masters depicted the wild animals they hunt, or those that are sacred to them, as well as those living next to them and therefore particularly revered.

At the heart of the same fantastic type of ornament lie non-existent plants or animals. Ancient Rome, where especially loved the subjects with objects of theatrical and musical art, luxurious life or military weapons, is the birthplace of the subject ornament. The sky and stars, the Sun and the Moon are elements of astral ornaments typical of China and Japan. Immediately a beautiful ornament of landscape type was born: on it there are mountains, rivers, waterfalls, forests and fields. In the Arab countries, a special, calligraphic type of ornament emerged with the advent of the first written language, consisting of letters and fragments of the text. All types of ornaments rarely exist in pure form, more often they intertwine, penetrate and complement each other.

Features of Arab works of art

The works of art created by the peoples of the Arab world are distinguished by a special spirituality, expressiveness, a subtle sense of beauty and exaltation. Arabian patterns and ornaments are unique and original with amazing diversity. The basis is the Muslim religion, which prohibits the depiction of man, animals, in general, living beings. Therefore, for example, Arabic ornament rarely includes elements of fauna, and then in a stylized form. Islamic culture is closer to geometric motifs, which are overwhelmed by the sense of continuity of movement and immerse a person in a world of contemplation, dreams, aspirations to learn the secrets of life.

Arabic ornament is the basis of the plastic creativity of Muslims, what became the art of artistic images of words, sayings, aphorisms from the sacred Koran for them - calligraphy.

Ornament as a kind of art of the Arabs

Studying the patterns and connections with the society of ornamental art makes it possible to apply everything progressive from the past in art today. Arabic Ornament As the most important The component of the fine and distinctive art of the East has a special aesthetic content and is a most valuable part of world culture.

Forms Strike with a complex simplicity and seething calm, they get used to reality and become a barrier between the world and man. Arabic Ornament Reveals the deep inner world of the masters creating it. It seems that they have learned to manage their own talent, enriched by experience, in order to reproduce so subtly all the shades of human experience. To fully reveal the conceived motif of the Arabian ornament, the master uses different forms, giving them a new sound with the help of the language of color and light.

The pictorial element dominates, and the ornaments of the Arab masters seem to be voluminous, dynamic. Creatively transforming the entire space, the authors blur the boundaries, transforming their work into the embodiment of a dream. This is a very important feature that distinguishes Arabic designs and ornaments from any others.

Law of rhythm in ornament

For a man, the phenomenon of rhythm is familiar. Day and night. Sleep and wakefulness. Therefore, we are waiting for him in works of art: in music and versification, in painting and architecture. Rhythm is order. Violation or lack of rhythm disturbs or even irritates. It is thanks to the presence of the rhythm that we are happy and full of wonder, admiring the beauty of works of art of the Arab ornament on plaster, brick, wood, copper, silver. It seems that the master combined in rhythm the material and pattern of the ornament, emphasizing the beauty and value of the material. Different elements of the ornament are subject to a certain rhythm, and in relation to each other they are in rhythm. The master of Arabic ornament is akin to a conductor in an orchestra. Therefore, these works of ornamental art are so harmonious.

Types of Arabic Ornaments

To understand where the Arab masters drew their inspiration from, it is necessary to imagine the endless deserts of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula: an open, boundless space, riddled with winding paths, rivulets, hills. Before the eyes, the gilding of sand merges with the bright blue of the sky and rivers, and closer to the water is the curling fragrant greens and unusually bright flowers. The masters adapted and adapted in the ornament everything that for centuries surrounded them. There are a lot of motives. There are recognizable elements, for example, from the ancient culture, and there are so abstract that it is almost impossible to know the prototype. An important element in the Arabic ornament is the knot. The roots of this - in the Muslim religion. In the East, a variety of images of a knot in ornamentation have a benevolent meaning for a long life, happiness. It is often used not just for communication, but for transforming one type of ornament into another and further into something completely abstract.

Girikhov knot

Girich is a geometric type of ornament. The main elements are figures: circle, oval, triangle, square, polygons. They are all symbols on which the universe is built. For example, the circle represents the center and movement, the square is associated with order and clarity. From these figures-symbols Arab masters, repeatedly twisting and overlapping one another, create the most complicated, mathematically precisely verified ornament.

And if you look at Arabic ornaments in general (in a mosque, for example), then the combination of geometric shapes in space admires. Admits the accuracy of the selection of ornamental patterns with the form of arches of galleries, the shape of windows. What an amazing color solution of the ornamentation on the ceiling and walls, on the pediments and on the floor! All this separately and together volumetrically due to the play of light and shadow.

Islimi - the path to the divine garden

At the heart of this Arabic ornament are images of an endless spiral with leaves and flowers. It's like a symbol of a continuous journey to the Garden of Eden or the idea of an incessant development of a blossoming green shoot. Islimi ornament has five forms: braided, simple, bifurcated, almond-shaped and winged. These forms do not exist separately, they are supplemented and filled with other motifs of the Arabian ornament, which does not tolerate emptiness.

Khatai is a simplified islimi. The same stems and branches, but abstract. In Arab countries, it is often used on the facades of houses, with the painting of pitchers and in carpet ornaments.

Islamic arabesque

In the whole Islamic world, a common type of ornament is arabesque. They are decorated with household items, and secular buildings, and religious buildings. This type of ornament is based on repetitions of fragments in a certain rhythm and does not carry any image in itself. It virtually eliminates the background, because the elements fit one into the other.

In the continuous weaving of the pattern, the form disappears with the eternal Arab hint of infinity. The main elements of arabesques are the parts of plants and interlacing, united in a unique ligature that goes to infinity.

Arabic calligraphy

A special decorative quality in Arabic calligraphy. The emergence of the alphabet and writing is generally considered the greatest invention of mankind. The ancient inscriptions on the stones from the village of Nabat, which have survived to this day and executed in pre-Islamic times in Arabic, confirm that the Arabs borrowed the alphabet from the neighbors of the nabat people living in the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula. For Muslim Arabs, the knowledge of the alphabet and the ability to read were sanctified and encouraged by the Qur'an. The Arabic language is, in fact, the language of this sacred book for any Muslim. And as the Koran, it became a unifying factor for the Arab people. They used to communicate and write educated people from any class with different religious views. This is the real democratic meaning of Arabic writing. And it is natural that he became an instrument of creativity. Masters of calligraphy, especially those who wrote by the method of nonsense (he wrote the Koran), occupied a privileged position in a society close to power. Arab calligraphy is an art noble, sublime and unifying. Thanks to her, the sacred in the Qur'an acquired a tangible form. Very often masters of wall ornaments inscribed Arabic calligraphy in their works in the form of sayings from the Holy Scripture: "Praise to one God", "Power belongs to God"; Or individual words: "Happiness", "Life", "Eternity".

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