For our homeland, black was 1223 year. The event in Russia happened in such a way that it determined the political alignment in Eastern Europe for several centuries. One unsuccessful battle turned the whole course of history.
1223: the event in Russia
From the school program, everyone should remember that the beginning of the 13th century is the time of the Mongol-Tatar invasion of the lands of the Polovtsians (the tribe next to the Slavs) and the territory of Russia. The conquest of Russian lands by this wild horde occurred gradually, but what happened in 1223 in Russia? It was May 31, 1223 (the Laurentian Chronicle informs us ) that the first battle of the Khan troops and Russian soldiers took place. We all know perfectly well from history this event called "The Battle of the Kalka River."
Causes of the Battle of Kalka
The battle between the Mongol-Tatars and the Russian princely squads was sooner or later to take place. Why? According to the strategy of the Mongols, which developed Genghis Khan, his state was to cover not only the truly Mongolian territory, but also spread to the whole of Europe.
Why do the Mongols have such huge territories? Do not forget that they are nomads. Such people can not sit in one place because of the way of doing business. Nomads do not engage in agriculture, but only livestock. Representatives of this people had huge flocks, which needed to be something to feed. The way of management meant the periodic replacement of pastures with new ones, because on old pastures there was nothing to eat animals as food. Europe needed the Mongols as a potential pasture for their livestock.
Events before the Battle of Kalka
It is clear that the situation of the battle on Kalka did not arise immediately. The victorious march of the Mongol troops began in Central Asia. Then the horde headed toward Iran. No army could stop them. The Mongol campaign continued in the direction of the Caucasus. The leaders of the Horde knew that in the Caucasus there are several rich large cities that can be robbed. Having passed the victorious procession in the Caucasus, for example, in Georgia, the troops entered the lands of modern Russia, on the territory of which the tribes of Alans and Polovtsians lived. The forces of these nomadic peoples were broken down singly, because the diplomacy of the Mongol conquerors also operated successfully.
1223 ... The event in Russia that could happen did not please the princes, because they understood that sooner or later these hordes will reach Kiev. Russian princes had to join the struggle against the Mongols at the request of the Polovtsians. Let us repeat, the skirmish with the troops of Genghis Khan sooner or later would have occurred anyway. Realizing that the Tatars did not stop, the princes decided not to deny the Polovtsian khan of help. Gathered in Kiev, the troops of Mstislav Halytsky and Mstislav Udalogo (at that time the Kiev prince) were put on the campaign. During the campaign, the Mongols sent their ambassadors twice, the purpose of which was to stop the Russian army. The Mongols claimed that they would cope with the Polovtsians, but would not go to Russian cities.
The battle with the Mongols
Knowing which event occurred in 1223 shortly before the appearance of the hordes of Baty, Genghis Khan in Russia (namely, the conquest of the rich cities of the Caucasus), the Russian princes did not believe the ambassadors of the Horde. Therefore, the campaign continued. The company moved down the Dnieper. On the territory of the present Cherkasy region of Ukraine princely troops had to cross the Dnieper. Already here the first meeting with enemy troops took place. The Mongols had fast horses, so they were able to escape and lure the Russian troops to a convenient battlefield, located near the modern river Kalmius (Zaporozhye region).
The beginning of the battle was for the Russian princes. To some extent this can be explained by the speed of the actions of the prince's troops. The prince of Kiev crossed the river, studied the Mongol camp from afar, returned to the location of his troops and prepared them for battle. The Mongols began to retreat. Especially strongly pressed on them by the squad of Daniel Galitsky. But then the Golden Horde forces introduced additional forces into the battle, which led to a typical outcome for many battles in the history of the Ukrainian and Russian peoples - the flight of the Allies (Polovtsians), which destroyed the Russian princes army. After that, the victory of the Mongol-Tatars was a matter of time and technology. The Slavic army suffered heavy losses in this battle.
1223 ... The event in Russia is really tragic. Defeat at Kalka put all of Rus in direct and complete dependence on the state "Golden Horde". Tatar-Mongolian yoke lasted almost 300 years. This huge historical period of time has postponed the negative imprint on the development of modern lands of Russia and Ukraine.