HealthDiseases and Conditions

Wegener's granulomatosis - causes, symptoms, treatment.

Wegener's granulomatosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of small arteries and veins. In most cases, arteries inflame the sinuses of the nose, lung and kidney tissue, but in addition, there are incomplete forms, in the event of which only one of these zones is affected. With extensive granulomatosis, both the lungs and both kidneys are almost always affected. In the event that only lungs or only the kidneys are affected, this disease is called incomplete Wegener's granulomatosis.

Wegener's granulomatosis is most often found in people of young or middle age, practically not meeting in children. But, nevertheless, this disease can affect all age groups. The gender statistics of the defeat of this disease differ from one author to another.

Causes of the disease

The causes of such a disease, as Wegener's granulomatosis, are not fully understood today. Many experts suggest that the cause of this disease can be a viral agent, because Wegener's granulomatosis quite often occurs after vaccinations, ARVI, antibiotic therapy or hypothermia. But, unfortunately, the microbial agent has not yet been isolated, so the disease is considered autoimmune.

Some patients confuse inguinal lymphogranulomatosis and Wegener's granulomatosis. It is necessary to understand that with the similarity of symptoms, these are two completely different diseases, because inguinal lymphogranulomatosis arises from a bacterial pathogen (chlamydia), while Wegener's granulomatosis is an autoimmune disease.

Symptoms and forms of the disease

Wegener's granulomatosis can start unexpectedly, but can flare up and gradually. The first symptom of the disease can be considered subfebrile temperature, then the appetite decreases. After that, the temperature starts to rise, and the disease progresses.

The general symptoms of this disease include:

- weight loss;

- fatigue;

- temperature increase;

- pain in the joints;

- Pain in the inflamed sinuses.

In addition, this disease can affect various parts of the body, while giving completely different symptoms. For example, if external respiratory organs are affected, a runny nose appears with unpleasant purulent-bloody branches, the mucous membrane of the nose is necrotic, as well as soft palate and tonsils.

The generalized form of the disease gives after a few months a serious complication on the skin, in particular, bleeding, knotty, necrotic elements appear, and in some groups of patients, pericarditis, myocarditis, or bronchitis.

Diagnosis of the disease

First of all, if we are suspicious of Wegener's granulomatosis, patients should submit an overall urine test for the presence of protein and erythrocytes in the urine. Further X-ray photographs of the sinuses of the nose and thorax are made to look at the pathological changes. In addition, the blood test, in particular, is determined by ESR and C-reactive protein. There is also a more complex, but more effective, analysis for the detection of antineurophilic cytoplasmic AT.

Treatment of the disease

Wegener's granulomatosis without proper treatment may well lead the patient to a fatal outcome within two to three months. All treatment is mainly aimed at suppressing the body's immune system, as well as local inflammatory reactions. The most popular drugs are corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. These drugs must be taken until the remission of the disease occurs, and then to prevent the recurrence of lymphogranulomatosis, you can add to them also methotrexal, which must be taken a couple more years.

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