Types of sand, their characteristics, extraction and application

Sand is a sedimentary rock and an artificial material that has in the rock fraction. Quite often it consists of mineral quartz, which is a substance called silicon dioxide. When it comes to natural sand, it is a loose mixture, the grain fraction of which reaches 5 mm.

Classification of the destruction of rocks

This material is formed during the destruction of rock hard rocks. Depending on what the conditions of accumulation are, the sands can be:

  • Alluvial;
  • Marine;
  • Deluvial;
  • Eolian;
  • Lakes.

When the material occurs in the process of activity of water bodies and streams, its elements will have a rounded rounded shape.

The main varieties of sand and the characteristics of their extraction

Today, almost all types of sand are used by man in various fields of activity and industry. River sand - a building mix, which is extracted from the riverbed. This material has a rather high degree of purification, which is why there are no small stones, impurities of clay content and foreign inclusions in the structure.

Career sand is extracted by washing with water in a huge volume, as a result, it is possible to get rid of the dusty particles of clay. Considering the types of sand, you can find quarry sand, which is purified in the process of extraction from a large fraction of the stones. This material is fairly widespread in the manufacture of solutions that go to the laying of foundations and the implementation of plastering works. You can find career sown sand in asphalt mixtures.

Building sand must comply with GOST 8736-2014, according to which the material is a loose inorganic mixture of coarse-grained grains, the size of which reaches 5 mm. The density of the material is 1300 kg / m 3 . Forming construction sand in the natural destruction of rock, it is extracted by the methods of development of sandy-gravel and sand deposits without and using concentrating equipment.

The main types of sand also include artificial heavy sand, which has the appearance of a loose mixture obtained by mechanical crushing of rocks, among which are:

  • Slags;
  • Granites;
  • limestone;
  • marble;
  • Pumice stone;
  • Tuff.

Features of artificial sand

They can have a different origin and density. If we compare the grains of this sand with grains of natural origin, the first ones have an acute-angled shape and a rough surface. Artificial sands are used as fillers for the preparation of plasters and decorative mortars. As a result, it is possible to achieve a tangible texture of the upper layer on the outer surfaces.

This material can become a part of any layer of plaster, because the fractionality of the grains may be different, depending on the variety of the solution. Usually the grain size is assumed equal to the size of natural sands. In the manufacture of artificial sand, the recycled coal, rock, and unburned particles, in which the sulfur content is low, are taken into processing.

The material characteristics will depend on the quality of the covering layer. In the manufacture of decorative plaster from such sand, for the economy can additionally be added crushed stone, powder of this breed or crumb, from this quality of texture even wins.

Application and characteristics of sea sand

Sea sand can be used in the production of building mixtures, the manufacture of aggregates, the implementation of plastering, the laying of road bases, the construction of fences and fences, as a filler for building grouts and dyes. The production of such sand is regulated by GOST 8736-93.

Fractions can vary from 2.5 to 3.5 Mk, which determines the size modulus. The grain density is equal to the limit of 2 to 2.8 g / cm 3 . In the sea sand completely no foreign impurities, but in some fractions you can find a small content of clay and dust particles. Sea sand is characterized by labor-intensive production, which makes its cost higher than the mine pit .

Characteristics and cost of quarry sand

The main feature of quarry sand is absence of impurities and frequency. The in-line quarry material has the following characteristics: a fraction ranging from 1.5 to 5 mm, a density equal to 1.60 g / cm 3 , as well as a low content of clay, dust and other impurities. The last in the composition should not be more than 0.03%.

Sand quarry, whose price per cubic meter will be 2200 rubles., Used not only in construction, but also in decoration, as well as the national economy. Especially cost-effective use of such sand in the production of concrete and brick, as well as in road and housing construction.

Sand quarry, the price for which is 2300 rubles., Can be represented as a material with a fraction ranging from 2.5 to 2.7 mm. In the production of high-strength concrete and reinforced concrete structures, reclaimed career sand of coarse fraction is usually used. Career material goes to the masonry and the manufacture of paving slabs.

Technical characteristics of river pre-mix sand and features of its extraction

The sand on the river bed has a density of 1.5 kg / m 3 . If it is a matter of density in the state of natural humidity, then this figure will be reduced to 1.45. The composition may contain pulverized particles, silty and clayey elements, but not more than in a volume of 0.7% by weight. The moisture content of the material is 4%, while the specific gravity is 2.6 g / cm 3 . These types of sand are extracted using a dredger, which is fixed on a barge. Such equipment is supplemented with hydromechanical installations, powerful pumps, networks and reservoirs for dividing the material by composition. The extraction of sand from the channels of dried up rivers is like mining quarry sand.


Almost all varieties of sand can be attributed to the first class of radioactivity. As an exception, only crushed sands. If to speak about other varieties, then they are radiation safe and can be used in all construction works without restrictions.

The use of sand is quite common today. For example, its quartz version is used for manufacturing general and special-purpose welding materials. As for the building variety, it is used to produce structural coatings, mixing with the dyes. Sands are also used for finishing work, as well as for repairing premises. The material also appears as a component of asphalt concrete mixtures used in the laying of roads and during construction.

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