The actual question of epistemology
One of the problems of the world view, which is the most important today, is the problem of truth. Knowing it is one of the most pressing issues of epistemology.
Most scientists, considering the question of what is true in philosophy, adhere to the classical concept of truth. Its origins can be found even in the teachings of Aristotle, they are based on the fact that knowledge corresponds to the object, realities, reality.
Knowing, a person is not just engaged in the formation of knowledge, but also gives him an assessment: is it acceptable, is it important or relevant. But the main kind of evaluation is evaluation from two positions - truth and falsity. Therefore, truth in philosophy is not a concrete phenomenon or thing, but knowledge about these phenomena and things.
Key provisions of the theory of truth in philosophy
The goal of all kinds of knowledge is truth. But, it should be noted that truth and error in philosophy always exist together, being invariable companions. Therefore, they occupy a leading place in the theory of knowledge. Under the misconception, one should understand knowledge that does not correspond to its subject and does not coincide with it. Truth in philosophy, on the contrary, is coordinated with its subject and corresponds to it.
It should be noted that the theory of truth in philosophy has two approaches - classical and neoclassical.
The classical approach includes the following concepts:
- Correspondent (provides that the idea and reality correspond to each other, and the representation coincides with reality);
- authoritarian (represents deep beliefs or absolute trust to authority);
- semantic (in connection with the fact that often the result of the utterance of a statement is a semantic paradox, a prohibition on the definition of truth in theory is introduced);
- The theory of truth in philosophy as evidence (truth is a vivid and clear representation);
- The theory of truth as an experience that has confirmation.
Neoclassical approach provides such concepts:
- a pragmatic theory (consists in the effectiveness and usefulness of knowledge);
- conventional (the truth is a consequence of the agreement);
- coherent theory (truth acts as a coherent knowledge).
Identity and differences of truth and error
The truth is adequate information about the object. It is obtained through comprehension - intellectual or sensual - or through communication about this comprehension. Characterized by such truth in philosophy from the standpoint of its reliability. Therefore, it can be argued that truth is a subjective reality.
But without extremes and delusions, mankind only in very rare cases manages to comprehend the truth. Delusion is a knowledge that does not correspond to reality and can not be accepted as true. The source of delusions is real, it reflects the objective reality.
In any scientific knowledge there is a clash between different opinions and beliefs. They can be both erroneous and reliable. Scientific knowledge, as a rule, is relative. After all, the truth in philosophy is historical: the object of knowledge is never exhausted. It has the property of changing, acquiring different qualities and an infinite number of relationships with all that surrounds it.
Thus, truth and error in philosophy are identical and at the same time different.
Their similarity is that they, like any other antagonists, can not exist alone without the other. Truth is an adequate, correct way of thinking; Misconception is a distorted reflection of this path.
It can also be argued that truth and error are different, because identity contains the difference, and the difference also provides for identity. Delusion is a high order abstraction - absolutization - the moment of knowledge, which is divorced from the object of knowledge.
Therefore, the question of how truth and delusion are correlated has a close relationship with truth - both absolute and relative.
Delusion must be distinguished from lies. Lying is a distortion of the truth, made deliberately, intentionally, with the goal of being deceived. Scientific misconceptions over time are overcome and generate true knowledge.