The structural element of the building is ... The main structural elements of buildings (foundation, walls, ceilings, partitions, roof, stairs, windows, doors)

The structural element of the building is its component parts, which are used by architects, designers, builders to construct the necessary structure.

The construction of buildings involves the assembly of elements, on which the purpose and determining its structure depend. Each structural element of a building is Its above-ground and underground parts.

They have residential, public and industrial purposes and can be built from natural or artificial stone or wood. By their design, they can have a single-story or multi-storey structure.

Each building as a whole and its components should have high strength, stability, durability, fire resistance.

Basic building components

Residential buildings represent an object that performs a certain number of functions that ensure a comfortable stay in the person. The main elements of the building:

  • Foundation.
  • Basement.
  • The plinth.
  • Blind area.
  • Walls (external and internal).
  • Partitions.
  • Stairs.
  • Overlapping.
  • Roofs.

Underground part of the building

For each building, first of all, the main structural element of the building is erected - this is the foundation that settles on the site of the ground that serves as its base. All of the body loads are distributed to it. From its strength depends rigidity, stability and durability of the building.

No structure is erected directly on the ground. The number of bases, different in their characteristics, structures, area of use, is quite large.

This building element can be made in a ribbon, slab or columnar version, the base of the latter are separate supports.

The pit for the arrangement of the belt foundation is made with a certain slope of the walls. The angle of inclination is calculated individually in each case.

The basement is arranged under the house, in the space limited by the base.

The basement is a fragment of the foundation located above the ground level. This part of the building structure is in more aggressive conditions than its vertical elements - the walls. This element is affected by the weight of all the superstructures above, the ground pressure during periods of freezing and thawing cycles.

Aboveground elements of a building

All elements of the structure, placed above the plane of the blind zone, consisting of bearing and enclosing components, belong to the aboveground components of the building to be erected.

Blinds define the boundary between the upper and underground structures of the structure. This is a special coating around the perimeter of the building. Its laying is carried out under a certain slope away from the bearing wall.

The design and purpose of the boundary structure is, first of all, waterproofing, that is, protecting the building from the effects of external precipitation and groundwater in the drainage. A warm scheme of the blind area will allow performing one more function - warming, preventing ground from frost heaving.

The use of decorative and durable materials to decorate the blind area allows not only to decorate and complete the appearance of the building. The blind area performs the function of a pedestrian path that provides access to the building.

Walls of external and internal bearing elements

The outer walls represent the vertical part of the enclosure of the building. They protect it from the external environment. In building a building, they are given the most difficult position. The walls experience loads of their own weight, floors, roofs of the building. In addition, solar radiation, temperature differences inside and outside the building, climatic conditions.

In order to exclude deformation of external and internal walls, materials used in construction for their erection meet all the conditions of strength and durability.

By its location, the building's structural element The "inner wall" is the element separating the middle of the building space. This part is not affected by any loads, except their own weight. However, because of the large internal space, the use of internal walls, which play the role of carriers, is required. Such walls rest on one foundation and are created by the type of external walls, using similar or related materials.

The middle floors are located between the basement and the attic space, are intended for people living and represent the basic structural elements of buildings.

In the plane of the outer walls of the floors, constructions such as windows, doors, necessary for communication with the external environment and staircases are built in.

Internal partitions and stairs

Partitions in the building are designed to separate the internal space of a separate room. With their help, the apartment can be redeveloped at the request of the owner. They do not test any force.

Stairs perform a communicating function between the floors, ensuring the possibility of evacuation of people in extreme situations and represent the basic structural elements of buildings.

The main staircases are located in the premises, which have load-bearing walls, in which the windows and doors of the apartments are located. All multi-storey buildings are equipped with external emergency ladders, necessary for work in emergency situations of rescue and fire services.


Overlappings represent horizontal details of structures, which in the structure construction perform a separating function. They form floors in the building, they have special requirements for strength, rigidity, as the interfloor floors in the house They must withstand their own weight and weight of all parts of the structure and people.

Horizontal components should be endowed with characteristics of sound and heat insulation, due to sanitary standards.

Roof and its components

Mauerlat - leveling support for the installation of rafters, the basis of the construction of the roof.

Another integral building element is the rafters, which must withstand their own weight, the material of the roof and the loads caused by climatic conditions: wind, snow, rain, solar radiation.

Details of the rafter system are designed to perform certain functions. The rafter system must have a high degree of rigidity in order to exclude dangerous movements that can lead to destruction of not only the roof, but the structure itself may collapse.

The most commonly used is the triangular form of the truss structure, the so-called truss. At the edges of the upper floor of the building, the farms are installed in parallel, connecting them with connecting elements such as a bolt (continuous or lattice-shaped linear element - support for runs and slabs), a run (a beam horizontally placed in the roof structure, necessary to support the roof) and tightening .

The roof structure closes the structure of the building, which combines the architectural and structural elements of the building and Its protective and Decorative properties.

The roof is equipped with an obligatory element - waterproof shell, roof, which also protects the building from mechanical impact, has high reliability and durability. In addition to protective functions, the roof decorates the building, gives it an individuality.

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