Automobile tires consist of two basic elements - a protector and a skeleton. The latter takes on the main power loads. And this is not only the air pressure from inside the tire, but also the roughness of the roadway from the outside. In this regard, for its manufacture, a special rubberized fabric (cord) is used, which is located on the entire perimeter of the wheel in several layers. The basis of the cord can be cotton, kapron and viscose, but more often it consists of a metal wire (the so-called metal cord). At the same time, the surface of the substrate (wire) is covered with a thin layer of brass, approximately 0.1-0.2 millimeters thick.
Tires for cars and their variants
All tires that are installed on modern cars and trucks are divided into two categories:
The radial tire has special cord fibers with a diagonal connection direction of the beads. In this case, an inevitable crossing of their paths appears in adjacent layers of paint (see photo).
In this regard, the number of applied cord layers must necessarily be even. Also, this type of tire is different in that the fibers connect the beads directly, heading to them at an angle of 90 degrees.
Classification of radial tires
In turn, this type of wheel is divided into two categories and can be both textile and combined. Both classes have a similar material for making the frame. Most often this is synthetic nylon. Their main differences are the type of the belt. On textile it is made of synthetic fibers, and on combined - from metal cord. This is the combination of materials experts say is optimal. At the same time, the strength of such a tire is significantly increased, and the probability of crack formation on the rim and microprojector is reduced to zero.
All modern manufacturers of automobile tires of radial type designate them on the sidewall with the letter R. In the marking it looks like this: 180/75 R14. Very often motorists confuse this symbol with the landing radius of the wheel. In fact, R14 says about the landing diameter, which in this case is equal to fourteen inches. Diagonal analogues are not marked with a similar symbol. In the designation of the size of these tires there are only numbers (for example, 6.50-15).
Why do diagonal wheels go to the past?
Such wheels at the moment are almost not manufactured and are not installed on cars and off-road vehicles. And all because the diagonal tires are subjected to great deformation in the area of the tread during the movement. As a result, the grooves of the pattern are significantly compressed, and the protrusions begin to slip along the support surface. Due to this, the quality of their adhesion to the road significantly deteriorates, and accordingly, the safety of driving is under threat.
Advantages of radial wheels
Among the main advantages of this type of tire, it should be noted their ability to operate at higher speeds and light weight. In addition, the radial tires have a greater load-bearing capacity, are less heated and are more elastic in structure than the diagonal counterparts.
It should also be noted that, due to their small curb weight, such wheels are more safe to operate. In practice, cars with radial tires are more maneuverable and stable at high speeds, with studies pointing to excellent grip quality with both dry and wet road surfaces.
Since the mentioned car tires (summer or winter - does not matter) only perceive one type of loads, the tension of the filaments in the carcass is much lower than that of the diagonal ones. This allows the use of a smaller number of layers of material for the frame, thereby increasing the quality of the heat sink. By the way, every cord here is absolutely independent. Due to this, there is no need to cross the fibers of neighboring layers (hence, we get less expensive production). By the way, car cameras for this type of tires are not required. All of them are tubeless, and therefore are used on all modern cars.
It should also be noted that radial rubber allows the use of ultra-modular cord types for the production of a belt. Thanks to this, an excellent grip of the tread with the road is obtained, as we mentioned earlier. And due to the rigidity of the belt, the deformation of the tread is reduced to a minimum, so the resource of such wheels is very large (at least on a flat road). However, such a wheel is less vulnerable to punctures, and in fact on our roads you can often find and building nails, and glass, and rusty screws.
The operation of automobile tires showed that the main disadvantage of such tires is their excessively high elasticity. And this does not apply to the whole protector, but only to the side of it. When moving around irregularities or tracks frequently, this can cause damage to the wheel. For the same reason, the radial tire is very sensitive and demanding on the pressure inside the chamber. If this indicator is greatly underestimated, it is necessary to expect premature damage in case of impact on stones and curbs. Another disadvantage of such a tire is its high cost.
Due to its structural features, the radial tire practically displaced from its production of its diagonal counterparts, which can now be found only in trucks. And even despite such a "bouquet" of shortcomings, the radial wheels are far superior to competitors in their characteristics, and therefore are used on all types of modern motor vehicles.
So, we found out what features the radial tire is characterized, how it is labeled and where to apply. When considering all the advantages and disadvantages of these wheels, it becomes obvious that radial tires will completely replace the diagonal counterparts in the world market in the near future.