Ruler of the Aztecs Montezuma II. Aztec Empire

In 1168, the Aztec ruler led his people from the island of Astlan in search of a new homeland. According to the legends, the Indians wandered about 200 years, and not choosing a place where they could settle. But still they settled on two small islets in Lake Texcoco. Here they replenished their forces and reserves, and then went to the more fertile land of the valley of Mexico City.

Having founded a second homeland, the Aztecs began their new history. They were a prosperous people, which constantly and systematically developed. But the end of their history came quickly and unexpectedly.

Historical and political information

The Aztec Empire was practically not developed until 1440. It is literally mired in battles and battles with local tribes. But in 1440, Montezuma I comes to power, which carries out a number of reforms, both political and economic. With his help, the empire becomes famous throughout the Mexican valley. The power of her army is really frightening. And so much so that some tribes themselves come to become part of the Aztecs, to surrender without prison.

The state grew, new lands were added. During this period, the Aztec ruler clearly understands that it is necessary to carry out a series of administrative and political reforms. Rites of sacrifice are gaining momentum. Of course, even during this period the bloody wars do not stop, but they are diluted by diplomatic relations. For example, the leaders invited neighboring rulers to view the battles between prisoners. Usually they ended with the death of both, but the spectacle was really horrifying and interesting.

Montezuma the Elder

The ruler of the Aztecs of Montezuma I the Elder comes to power in 1440. His reign sets a new stage in the development of the empire. There are several points that have become fundamental during his power.

First, the sacrifices performed in the form of duels between prisoners are becoming popular. The battle ended with the death of one of them, the second killed specially intended for this people. However, the Aztec, who captured the most powerful enemy, were given different gifts.

Secondly, almost all sacrifices acquire a political context. Neighboring leaders are invited to enjoy the bloody spectacle. This is also done in order to instill fear in the neighbors.

And thirdly, mass executions are gaining popularity. But they are, rather, a psychological deterrence for the Aztec people, so that people can see what punishment they will be expected if they decide to disobey the high priest or ruler (later these ranks will merge).

Montezuma the Younger and its features

In 1502, the ruler of the Aztecs became Montezuma II Younger. The years of his rule were not remembered by the special replenishment of the territories. Conquest missions, of course, were committed, but they actually did not bring fruits. Almost throughout the entire period of his rule, Montezuma the Younger was forced to maintain authority on the already existing lands: insurrections were suppressed, insurgents were eliminated.

Like its predecessors, this leader was not able to conquer the Tarascans and Tlaxcalans. The latter completely surrendered to the full responsibility of the Spanish conquistadors, giving them everything they need. And this was done only in order to annoy the hated Aztecs.

The memory of Montezuma II remained as the greatest diplomat of her time. The political system of military expansion continued, but the regime was somewhat relaxed. Blood rituals and sacrifices have receded into the background, and attempts have been made to bring all the peoples of the empire to the economic position of the state. There were no conquests, but there were mutually beneficial alliances.

The years of Montezuma II

During the period of the reign of Montezuma II, several noteworthy historical events occur. These include not only the bloody wars waged by the new Aztec ruler, but others that do not affect the battles of the incident.

For example, in 1509 the tribe watched the comet. This was a terrible sight for the Aztecs, because they could not explain the reason for the appearance of a glowing object in the sky. The priests also could not decipher the message, although everyone was sure that these were the words of the Gods.

In the period 1512-1514 years. In the Empire there are several natural disasters that begin with the strongest earthquakes and end with a global drought. Many people die and harvest, the time of hunger comes. For several years the wars are suspended, as there is no strength and no desire to gather soldiers for new military campaigns.

In 1515, for the first time in the state, a rumor spread that the bearded white people appeared on the mainland. Priests interpret this as a human manifestation of the Gods. Therefore, Montezuma does not plan to defend himself against the invaders, he is going to meet them with open arms.

Death of Montezuma II

When the Indians first heard about the aliens from other continents, the Aztec ruler sent his messengers to them. On their return they had to tell about the culture of new people, and also draw them. After reading the information received, it was decided that Hernan Cortes is a hero and God. Therefore, Montezuma the Younger instructs the Indians to welcome the Spaniards cordially and friendly.

The first few days the friendship between the two different peoples is preserved. But, as it turned out, the mission of the Spaniards did not have clear goals. Europeans seemed Indians greedy for gold, as they plundered all the treasures, took away gold products, plundered shrines and tombs. The patience of the Aztecs came to an end, they changed mercy to anger.

When Montezuma went to the square to calm the crowd, he was stoned. There are two versions of his death. According to the first, he died of injuries sustained by his fellow tribesmen; On the second - it was killed by the Spaniards, whom he decided to fight back.

Treasures of Montezuma

The Spaniards found several places where the treasures of the Aztecs were hidden. Originally, when they were still on friendly terms with the Indians, they found fresh brickwork within the walls of the government castle. Naturally, they decided to see what's hidden behind it. There was a lot of jewelry, gold. Assuming that the Indians can hide other treasures, the Spaniards did not pretend that they knew anything.

But Montezuma was smarter. He saw that the masonry was moving. Therefore, the ruler offered the Spaniards the treasure they found as a gift. He asked them to take all the gold to the Spanish authorities, thinking that they would leave the empire. But the enemies remained, wanting to find more gold.

The treasures of the Aztecs were almost completely ransacked. However, there is an opinion that some treasures have remained untouched to this day.


It is believed that the last emperor of the Indians was Montezuma II. But in reality it is not so. During the battle with the Spanish conquistadors, the siege of the capital of the Aztec empire was carried out. The detachment of Cortes was constantly receiving reinforcements. Within two months it was possible to achieve complete depletion of the city of the Indians, in fact all of them were destroyed.

Before the complete collapse of the state on August 13, 1521, the Spaniards seized a canoe on the lake, where noble people were. They tried to escape. Here was Guatemoc, the last Aztec emperor who married the youngest daughter of Montezuma. He was tortured to find out where the other treasures were hidden. But even after a few days of grueling taunts, Guatemoc said nothing.

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