Communion is an opportunity to convey simultaneously both the action and its sign. Often it is used to "facilitate" the proposal and translate from a complex design into a more concise version of it. For example:
A fairy tale is a literary source that helps a child develop a fantasy.
A fairy tale is a literary source that helps a child develop a fantasy.
From verbs are formed, as the passive participles present tense and past, and real.
Definition of the Sacrament
In Russian, the participle is a special form of the verb, which denotes the feature of the object by action. Communion has at once two morphological properties:
- They have the attributes peculiar to verbs.
- Have signs of adjectives.
Like verbs, participles have:
- A kind - perfect (answer the question "what did" - the boy who read the book) and imperfect ("what does", "doing" is the boy reading the book);
- Return (end in a suffix - sya, - for example, perfumed) and irrecoverability (playing);
- Form of the past (got a job - got a job) and the present tense (playing - playing);
- Can occur from verbs transitive and intransitive and be valid and passive.
As adjectives, participles have:
- Genus (drawing child - masculine gender, drawing girl - feminine, painting device - middle genus);
- Number (person thinking about food, painted portrait - only, people thinking about food, people drawn - plural) ;
- Full form, and passive also a short form (for example, invented by the author - invented by the author).
It is easy to remember that the passive participles of the present time and the past are produced only from the verbs of the transitional form.
Such verbs denote an action with a transition to an object and always have to do with the noun or pronoun in the vinit. A case without a preposition:
- The seller weighs (what?) Cheese (the seller's weighed cheese (what?) Cheese);
- The boy meets (whom?) Mom (met by the son (whom) mum).
There is an exception to this rule, so, for example, when denying a noun or pronoun can stand in the parent. Case without a pretext (did not finish eating dinner (what?) Soup - soup, half-eaten at dinner). The same exception extends if the action indicates a part of the object (cut off (what?) Bread - cut (what?) Bread is not enough).
Production of passive participles
The participles that indicate the feature of the object in relation to which the action is performed are passive. For example:
- The fish (what?), Caught by fishermen, turned out to be carp.
- Ring (what?), Passed from generation to generation along the female line.
- Knowledge (what?), Gained in practice, becomes an experience.
- A kitten (what?), Picked up in the street, grew into a big brazen cat.
As can be seen from the examples, passive participles answer the same questions as adjectives.
The suffering participles of the present time come from the foundations of the imperfect species in the present tense. For example:
- See - visible;
- To love is beloved;
- Speak - speakable;
- Hear - audible.
The passive participles in the past tense are derived from the basis of the indefinite form of the verb:
- Wash - washed;
- See - seen;
- To do - done.
The present suffering present participles (examples above) do not have a perfect look.
Suffixes in the present tense
The suffix for creating passive participles is directly related to the conjugation of the verb. Suffixes of passive participles present tense - 1 conjugation - em, and 2 - im.
- Observe - observed (1 conjugation);
- Sell - sell (1 cont.);
- To put on - put on (1 спр.);
- Stored - stored (2 спр.);
- Salt - soluble (2 спр.);
- Persecuted - persecuted (2 cont.).
There are exceptions in which passive participles of the present are created from intransitive verbs with nouns or pronouns in the instrumental case. For example:
- Manage (what?) Team - the team, led by the head;
- To control (by whom?) Itself is a person, governed by himself.
A number of verbs do not create such participles in the present tense at all. Examples of such verbs: beat, sew, revenge, write and others. If you are given the task of "form passive participles of the present time," you just need to remember about these exceptions.
The only verb that forms the two kinds of passive participle in the present tense is to move - the person driven by the idea; An object moved by the power of thought. In this case, the suffixes of passive participles of the present time, characteristic of both conjugations are applied.
Suffixes in the past tense
- Two - nd - in passive participles is used when the verb ends at -at, -yay, -et: read-read, done-done;
- The suffix -en is put on the basis of verbs ending in -i or -it: bring - brought, commit - perfect;
- The suffix -t is placed in the formation of verbs ending with -not, -other, for example, close - closed, grind - ground, locked - locked.
The suffix -t is also used when creating passive participles from monosyllabic verbs, for example, washing - washed, beat - beaten and others.
Some verbs, for example, take, seek, love, do not create passive participles, and from verbs ending in -sty, -st, in the past tense are formed either from the present or from the future tense:
- Bring home - brought home;
- To gain faith is faith;
- Steal clock - a stolen watch.
In these examples, verbs are in the future tense, and participles are in the past.
Forms of participles
Suffering participles are in two forms in the past and the present time - complete and concise. At the same time, in the short form, they are inclined to the numbers, and in the single form - according to the genera, as can be seen from the following sentence:
- Passive participles present: the city burned to the ground (masculine gender, singular number) - the city is burnt to the ground; Cities burnt to ashes (plural) - cities burned to the ground;
- Short forms in the past tense: a book read quickly - the book was read quickly;
Full forms have suffixes with two -n: -nn, -enne, whereas one-n-in short passive participles. For example, the improved version - the option is improved, the hidden thoughts - the thoughts are hidden. Not all participles of this species have a short form, for example, slave, readable, spoken and others.
As members of the sentence, brief, as well as complete passive participles can be a definition, but most often these are predicates:
- The paths (what did they do?) Were covered with golden foliage (a predicate);
- The daughter fell asleep (which?), The song of a lulled child (definition);
- I inspire music, (what?) I started to dance (definition).
In the form of predicates, short participles use an auxiliary verb or can be independent, for example: the store is open - the store has been opened.
Declination of the Sacraments
Since the passive participles have similar adjective properties, they can tend in cases (in singular), numbers and genera. Complete passive participles tend, like similar forms of adjectives, that is, cases, gender and numbers. Short participles can be inclined only by numbers and births.
- And - interviewed (person), questioned (woman), questioned (population), interviewed (children);
- P - questioned (person), questioned (women), questioned (population), respondents (children);
- D - questioned (person), questioned (woman), questioned (population), questioned (children);
- В - questioned (person), questioned (women), questioned (population), respondents (children);
- T - questioned (person), interviewed (woman), interviewed (population), interviewed (children);
- P - (about) questioned (person), questioned (woman), questioned (population), respondents (children).
In short form, you can identify the gender and number of the noun or pronoun related to the sacrament: the person is interviewed, the woman is interviewed, the population is interviewed, the children are interviewed.
Passion of passive participles in adjectives
In sentences, present-day passive participles (examples below) can often play the role of adjectives, while they lose such a category as time and acquire the value of a permanent feature of the subject. For example, a loaded boat, a baked patty.
It is unusual for these forms to have explanatory words with themselves, and the passive participles themselves are written with one - n. If there are additional words, then the suffix sets two - nn, for example:
- A wounded beast - a knife wounded with a knife;
- Loaded boat - a boat loaded with fish;
- Baked patty - baked in the oven patty.
Passive participles with a prefix always cost two - n in the suffix. For example, thawed, strengthened, chosen, red-hot and others.
In the suffix -sovanny it is always written two-n, even when the communion passed into the adjective-an organized picnic, a qualified specialist.
Particle "not" in passive participles
In participles that have an explanatory noun or pronoun, the "not" particle is always spelled separately. For example:
- To the garage led an uncleaned path - to the garage led by a path not cleared from the snow;
- The unfinished tea was left on the table-not tea left by the mother remained on the table.
With brief passive participles, the particle "not" is written separately: the matter is not over, the problem has not been solved, the path has not been completed.
Punctuation marks when writing participles
Communions that have dependent words, form turnovers, which in sentences are separated by commas. The word that defines the sacrament is called definable. If the sacrament is up to this word, then the comma is not put: a cobblestoned path led to the park. The exception is a turn related to the pronoun: awakened by voices, she quickly got up.
The sacrament, which stood after the designated word, stands out with a comma: a car, spattered with mud, passed by. If the communion with the dependent words is in the middle of the sentence, then it stands out with punctuation marks on both sides: the car, spattered with mud, passed by.