The term "exorcism" comes from the Greek word for "conjuring," "binding an oath." It is an act whose purpose is to drive out demons (one or more) from the body of the being possessed by them. In the role of the latter can be not only a person, but also an animal, and sometimes an inanimate object. For example, in a 15th-century German painting (the circle of Martin Schongauer) depicts Mary Magdalene, as well as John the Evangelist, who blesses with poison the wine from the cup with wine. The poison then comes out of it in the guise of a snake. It is known that in ancient times there were Gallic rituals of expelling the demon, such as the exorcism of water, oils, salt, etc. Apparently, they were also aimed at purifying material substances, which, perhaps, were then used for various ritual-sacral purposes.
The expulsion of demons from antiquity was conceived, as in the whole struggle against the devil, in spatial categories. That is, the devil should be sent from a territory that does not belong to him. He had to leave the "vessel of the body" so that God could enter there.
Features of rituals used in different cases
The ritual differs depending on how much the sufferer is obsessed. In light cases, for example, when it comes to malaise, which is attributed to the demon, enough blessing. Exorcism in this case is practically identified with the Christian prayer for recovery. The ritual in the proper sense of the word is resorted to if the unclean spirit completely takes possession of the body of the sufferer, including his language. Exorcist, talking with the body of a man, believes that he is talking with a demon. This ritual applies not only to the possessed. Exorcism in the Western church (and later also in the Roman Catholic church) was a necessary part of the rite of baptism. It was believed that the latter not only introduced a person to the church, but also expelled the devil from his soul, replacing him with Christ.
Is it necessary to say the text out loud?
It is not always the prayer of prayers that is pronounced aloud and needs ritual accompaniment. In ancient times there was a notion that written rituals are also effective. In this case, the corresponding text was simply tied around the obsessed person's neck, and thus the demons were driven out. However, this method, in all likelihood, was not considered reliable. This is confirmed by the Gallic "Life of St. Eugend" written about 520 AD. It says that obsessed with a fierce demon girl impose a large number of exorcisms texts on the neck. However, the devil does not want to leave it. On the contrary, he mockingly notes to the participant of the action that he will not be able to expel, even after hanging all the Alexandrian manuscripts on the "vessel" he possessed. An order from the monk Yura Yevgen is necessary. After Yevgen writes a letter-exorcism, the demon-possessed girl is freed from the power of the evil spirit.
Who invented the ritual of exorcism?
According to legend, Solomon is the inventor of art itself to command the demons. From the Judaic legends, we learn that he could control the demons of lily, ruhin and shim, could even make them dance before him.
Josephus describes the exorcism that Eleazar, his compatriot, carried out in the presence of Vespasian: to the nostrils of the demoniac, the exorcist attached a magic ring and, using Solomon's references to spells, pulled spells through the nostrils of the demon. The obsessed has fallen, and in order to show Vespasian that the demon came out, Eleazar ordered an unclean spirit to turn the cup with water.
The first exorcist in the Christian religion is Jesus himself. Once he drove out of the possessed "legion" of unclean spirits. They entered the pigs and then threw themselves into the sea. However, he did the opposite - he allowed Satan to enter the body of Judas. On a secret evening, he handed a piece to Iscariot, and after that, Satan entered.
Note that, although the text of exorcism is addressed directly to the exorcist, he ultimately turns to Christ. It is Jesus, strictly speaking, who is the only exorcist, since it is impossible to drive out a demon without his intervention. Exorcists also sometimes resort to the help of another higher authority (not counting Christ) - the Virgin Mary.
Duration of the ritual
The duration of the ritual can be different. Sometimes the demon immediately leaves the possessed. However, a case has been described where for two whole years his exile lasted. Obsessed, as a rule, after the ritual "falls dead", and sometimes it really dies. In the Irish text of the 10th century, "The Floating of Saint Brendan", one of the companions of this holy at the instigation of the demon commits theft. The saint exorcists the unclean spirit. He appears present. After that, the monk dies, and his soul angels are taken to heaven.
Means of Exile
As a means of exorcism, a prayer can be used as a prayer, as well as various relics. In medieval legend, for example, hairs from the beard of St. Vincentsia. They were wrapped in a neck scarf. Many means can be used, carrying out exorcism. The words of prayers are just one way. For example, the tool of exorcism can be the tomb of a saint. The proximity of her, it is believed, makes the demons go away. Thus, any sacred objects can be used. Although prayer (for example, the prayer of expelling the demon in Latin) is still the main means. Without it, it is difficult to perform a ritual.
Negotiations of the demon with the exorcist
Often, the expulsion of demons turns into a dialogue with them. Communication exorcist with an unclean spirit can sometimes be very long. In the course of a dialogue on mutually acceptable terms, a contract is concluded. The spirits of demons are often traded pettyly, and the exorcist sometimes (in naive legends) tries to use the knowledge of the devil in his own purposes. For example, he can learn about the afterlife of some deceased, carrying out exorcism. The words of the devil - this, of course, is not something that should be blindly believed, but even from the evil one some manage to draw out the truth.
During the dialogue it is important to specify under what circumstances, when and where it will go. For example, a certain medieval exorcist, before the curse of the unclean spirit, ascertained from him where and when he intended to leave the body of the possessed. He informed him that this would happen today in the house of St. Marguerites.
Especially important is the question of where the demon will go. After all, under the wrong conditions, he can leave only part of the body of the victim and settle, for example, in the throat, hand, etc. Later, he can again take the abandoned place. It is believed that an ideally performed ritual is one in which a demon goes straight to hell, from where he can not return to earth, since hell, according to the apostle Peter, is a place of confinement , where she awaits the final judgment. However, it is especially difficult to get him to go there. The contractual process in this place often slips. About where to go, demons bargain even with Christ himself. In the Gospel they ask for permission to move into a herd of pigs, which Jesus allows them.
Exorcised st. Francis Paulan demon intended to go through the eyes of the obsessive. However, he had to take another route. The demon, as a result of the skilful actions of the saint, was imprisoned in a prudently prepared vessel. This was another exorcism.
Sometimes dialogue can be deprived of strong emotional overtones. The unclean spirit refrains from wailing, but sets the exit condition or sets the exorcist an insidious question, to which one should correctly answer. For example, when Abba Apollonius performed exorcism, the demon told him that he would come out, but only if he told him who the sheep and who were the goats mentioned in the Gospel. This question is a trap, which, incidentally, Apollonius safely escaped. He told him that the goats are unrighteous (including the Abba himself, since he is subject to many sins), and who such sheep are known only by God. It is clear that in this case, the demon was proud of Apollonius. However, the latter's answer was ideal. He demonstrated complete humility - the best weapon against evil spirits.
Features of the Lutheran Rite
The rite of expelling the demon, for all its visible elaboration, often includes personal moments, which are determined by the exorcist's depiction of the devil and the bizarre relationships that he has with the demon. When in the 16th century Luther made a kind of revolution in the practice of exorcism, while refusing all the ritual components, with the exception of prayer (which he also understood non-radically as a purely internal process), he proceeded from his personal notions of the devil. The ritual of exorcism, according to Luther, flattered the pride and vanity of the evil spirit, if at the same time a solemn spell was cast to expel the demon. Therefore, he only strengthens power. Therefore, the exorcist, as Luther believes, must abandon the ritual. Only contempt and prayer should be his tools. After all, the devil is cast out by Jesus himself, and not an exorcist. He will do it whenever he wishes, without being guided by human rituals. The description of Luther's exorcism shows how he resorted to contempt (the second gun) after the first, that is, prayer, did not help. When a demon-possessed girl was brought to him, Luther, laying her right hand on her head, began to pray. He explained to the people around him that the prayer will last until God hears it. However, reading it did not help. Considering that prayer only covets the pride of an unclean spirit, Luther backs away from the girl, and then kicked it with the foot (of course, at that moment he saw in it only the embodiment of the demon). After that, Luther began to mock Satan. The expulsion of demons (exorcism) on this was over. The girl was taken to her homeland, and Luther was informed that she was not tormented by an evil spirit.
Protestants, not denying the necessity of the very ritual of exile, contrasted the exorcism with the idea of the inner struggle of each person with the devil. The followers of Luther considered the ritual of exile a kind of witchcraft, indulging the devil. J. Hocker Osnaburg, in his treatise in which he opposes exorcists (it can be read in the collection of "The Theater of the Devils"), claims that it is sinful to use the prayer and holy words in the performance of the ritual.
The need to clean the exorcist himself
Reflexivity, which is inherent in the problems of demonology (after all, the demon is in the end itself inside the person), is also manifested in the theme of exorcism. The person who implements him has to heal himself. Uneasy task for the exorcist is his own cleaning.
Tips for those who decided to drive the devil out on their own
If you are going to drive out the devil yourself, think about whether you will have enough spiritual and physical strength for this, as well as the courage to join the confrontation with the evil spirit. Are not you afraid of what you might see when you start reading the spell? Even the strong in spirit do not always withstand what happens when the demons are driven out of a person. For some, this ritual may even prove fatal: the psyche and life will change irreversibly.
The patient should be treated very carefully. During the ritual, you must suppress pride in your soul, forget about fastidiousness and self-esteem. The only important thing now is to help the human soul, to be able to rid it of the yoke of the demon. An unclean body in power can do terrible things. The healer must humbly ask God for help. However, the worst thing is the possible consequences of the ritual. A person can be healed, but there is a chance that he will die. Therefore, it is necessary to understand all responsibility and to realize one's own strength. Note that the church very rarely gives permission for this ritual.
In complex cases, it is required to repeat the ritual repeatedly. The exorcism spell you cast might not work right away. It is possible that the impure spirit will leave the body after a few weeks or even months. The exorcism spell you cast in Latin or any other language is not a guarantee that an unclean spirit will abandon its prey. Exorcism is a complex ritual. Below we describe the main stages of its implementation. However, first of all, you should make sure that the person is really possessed by the devil. There are a number of signs that can be used to determine this.
How can you know that a person is possessed by demons?
He can speak in ancient languages or modern foreign, which he did not know before. In addition, he may have supernatural powers or abilities. A man sometimes knows about something he does not need to know. An important sign - the obsessed is afraid of all the consecrated: the church symbols, the cross. He can also engage in sacrilege and blasphemy. Note that the symptoms of obsession are often just signs of diseases such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, Thurret's syndrome, hysteria, or other mental disorders. However, the opposite is also possible. Real exorcism, which has a powerful spiritual basis, is able to drive out demons that masquerade as a split personality, psychosis, hysteria, manic syndrome, paranoia, aggressive schizophrenia.
Stages of the ritual
First of all, it is necessary to find out about the way in which the impure spirit was sacrificed. Then find out the name of the one who allowed the demon to enter the creation of God. Further prayers are read over the patient. This may be the Gospel of John (chapters 14 and 16), the "Creed" or "Our Father". It is necessary, while making a ritual, to keep a person. Sometimes for this you may need even ropes.
After reading the prayers, sprinkling with holy water follows. Next comes the communication with the demon that entered the human body. This is a dangerous moment: if the unclean wins, he will remain. Theology is the favorite topic of conversations of demons. They can try to lure the exorcist into a logical trap. You can be helped by a good knowledge of religious literature, as well as obedience to God's will and complete humility. Bes in case of victory will ask about how and where he go. He can begin to bargain, and also ask him to leave. Be firm in your intentions.
The final stage - reading a special spell to expel the demon in Russian or any other language. By itself, language is not so important. Also very popular is the exorcism spell of the demon in Latin. More importantly, what meaning is invested in the spell. The text of the spell is shown below.
"We exorcise you, the spirit of all uncleanness, all satanic power, every infernal hostile enemy, every legion, every assembly and sect of the devil, in the name and virtue of our Lord Jesus Christ, roost and flee from the Church of God, from souls in the image of God created and precious blood Lamb of the redeemed. Do not dare more, the serpent sly, deceive the human race, the Church of God to chase and select the God's chosen ones and disperse like wheat. God commands you to be the Most High, to whom until now you desire to be equal in your great pride; Which all people want to save and lead to the knowledge of the truth. God the Father is commanding you ; God commands you the Son; God the Holy Spirit commands you. It commands you the greatness of Christ, the eternal God of incarnate word, who, in order to save our race, by the envy of your fallen, humbled himself and was obedient even to death; Who set his church firmly on a rock and promised that the gates of hell would not prevail against it, for it would remain with it until the end of the century. It commands you the mystery of the cross and all the secrets of faith Christian nobility. The high Virgin Mary, who high-hued your head from the first moment of her immaculate conception in her humility, struck you. The faith of the holy apostles Peter and Paul and the other apostles commands you. The blood of the martyrs and all holy men and women is pious for you, a pious intercession. "
The ritual will be easier if you use Christian relics. They will help you in the exile of the demon. It is also important that the obsessed understand what is happening to him, and if possible, help the exorcist.