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Empirical sociology in Russia

During the 20th century, Western sociology was marked by a significant evolution, so at present it is a complex system of concepts, ideas, methods and theories. Empirical sociology refers to significant concepts of sociology of the 20th century, along with the theory of social conflict, structural and functional analysis, sociometry, the theory of symbolic interactionism, the concept of social exchange and phenomenological sociology.

Empirical sociology includes 2 main directions:

- Applied empirical research in sociology, their tasks include conducting studies that are aimed at solving practical, clearly defined tasks.

- Academic empirical research in sociology, their tasks include the formation of systems of scientific knowledge about the phenomena of public life and certain areas used as the methodological basis of certain sociological research.

Empirical sociology has been developing in the second half of the 20th century not only in the United States, but also in Western Europe. Representatives of the empirical school affect a fairly diverse range of interests, but the main solved problems are the theoretical and methodological substantiation of research, as well as the correlation and correlation of the volumes of applied and academic directions.

Empirical sociology in Russia developed both before the revolution (P. Petrazhitsky, M. Kovalevsky and others), and in the first ten years after it (A. Gastev, S. Strumilin, A. Todorsky, N. Antsiferov, A. Chayanov, I.Bobrovnikov, A.Boltunov, M.Kornev, M.Lebedinsky, V.Olshansky and others). Empirical sociology in Russia in the 1920s explored the problems of organizing labor, raising the culture of education, life and production, and training qualified personnel. At the beginning of the 1930s, such studies were stopped and resumed only in the 1970s (Yulevada, A.Zdravomyslov, I.Kon, G.Osipov, V.Rozhin, V.Shubkin, A.Kharchev, V.Yadov and etc.).

Today, visual images of the methodology of cognition change. For example, VA Yadov, a well-known Russian sociologist, proposes the following empirical research strategies for various theoretical approaches. He suggests using such a formulation of the theoretical paradigm as a basis: the paradigm in sociology is a complex idea of the interrelationships of various theories, including:

A) the adoption of a general philosophical response to the question "what is social";

B) acceptance of a certain general spectrum of problems that are subject to investigation within a particular paradigm;

C) the recognition of certain general criteria of validity, principles and reliability of knowledge in relation to social processes and phenomena.

There are three stages in the development of Russian sociology:

The first stage (60-80's of the nineteenth century). There is sociology in the West, and in Ross and. It is regarded as a science that uses other sciences as a "storehouse" of facts necessary for the development of its laws of social dynamics and statics. At this time, sociology simultaneously developed as a geographical school, organicism, psychology: socio-psychism and subjective school.

Subjective sociology has formed its principles before all. The driving motive was the desire to argue the ideas of Russian populism and socialism.

Ideas of the psychological direction explored the decisive role of cultural factors, influencing the motivation of human behavior.

The second stage (80 - 90's of the 19th century). At this time anti-positivist attitudes and Marxism are being formed. At this time MM Kovalevsky released his work "Sociology." He understood sociology as a science about the evolution and organization of society. He stressed that in sociology economic, psychological, and geographic factors were intertwined, but none of them, at the same time, is not decisive.

The third stage (until the 20-ies of the 20 th century). The leading school is neopositivism. At the same time, "Christian sociology" is being formed.

The fourth stage (from the 80s of the 20th century to the present). A new stage, marked by cardinal changes in sociology, which is recognized as an independent science.

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