The theory of learning is an independent part of the science of pedagogy. It is also called didactic (from the Greek "didacticos" - educator, instructor). Teachers in the schools of ancient Greece were called didaskalas, because they were given the responsibility not only to give young people certain knowledge, but also to bring them up to be real citizens. Gradually in the colloquial language this concept acquired a contemptuous meaning: "the desire of all to teach, excessively moralize."
But the German teacher V. Ratke returned this term to the lost meaning - the art of education or the scientific theory of learning. In the work of Jan Amos Komensky "Great didactics" it is pointed out that this theory extends not only to children in school, "it teaches all to everything", and therefore it is universal. And indeed, in the process of our life we learn something new every day, and how well we will learn the information depends on the ways of its presentation. Methods, methods, and types of didactics were developed in the future by such eminent scientists as V.I. Zagvyazinsky, I.Ya. Lerner, I.P. Podlasy and Yu.K. Babansky.
Thus, the modern theory of learning examines the interaction and interrelationship between "educative" teaching and the cognitive activity of schoolchildren. It sets itself the task of improving the educational process, developing new effective pedagogical technologies. In addition, she describes and explains the process of upbringing and education. For example, didactics at various stages of the learning process calls for the use of various forms and methods of cognitive activity: the teacher-pupils; A schoolboy is a book; Child - class and others.
Thus, the theory of education says that knowledge is acquired by us not by themselves, not in isolation, but in unity with the principles of their presentation and the practice of their application. And each science has its own specifics of the material supply: physics, chemistry, other applied disciplines fundamentally differ from the process of learning music or philosophy. On this basis didactics distinguishes subject methods. In addition, it is believed that this science performs two main functions: theoretical (gives general concepts to students) and practical (instills certain skills).
But also we should not discount the most important task of pedagogy - the education of an independent person. A person not only has to learn theoretical knowledge and apply them in the way a teacher explained to him, but also to approach creatively the use of these initial theories and practices to create something new. This area of pedagogy was called the theory of developmental learning. Its foundations were put forward in the XVIII century by Pestalozzi, pointing out that in man from birth a desire
Soviet pedagogy proceeded from the principle that the upbringing and acquisition of information must outstrip and lead the development of the aptitudes and talents of students. Therefore, the domestic theory of education is based on such principles: a high level of difficulty for the entire class (designed for the most gifted children); The primacy of theoretical material; Fast rate of mastering the material; Awareness of the learning process by the students. Developmental learning is focused on the potential of the student, in order to "spur" them fully open.