The capital of the Chuvash republic - Cheboksary, is considered one of the most beautiful cities in Russia. And to that there is confirmation. The city is not very large (the area of the urban district is 250 sq. Km) and sparsely populated (the population is 470 thousand people), but it strikes with its beauty, clean streets, fountains and squares.
The first mention of this city, located on the bank of the Volga, belong to the XV century. In the Russian chronicles mention is made of the urban settlement, only its name was slightly different and was used in the singular - Cheboksary. Settlement on the Volga was founded before the XV century (but the official date of birth of the city is 1469), initially as a military fortification of the Russian troops. The map of Chuvashia was already there by then, however it did not survive, and it is impossible to judge more precise mentions with cartographic data.
As for the etymology of the word, here there are several options. One of them is the origin of the name from the word combination "Chebak" and "ar". Chebak is a common name for the Mari that lived on this territory, and ar is the Finnish name of the river. What does it mean - "Chebaka River". Another option implies the origin of the word from the Chuvash "Shupakar", which means "fortified place" in Russian. The map of Chuvashia of an older version was printed for a long time with an unusual name for the present day.
In the second half of the 16th century, on the outskirts of the city, a military fortress is being built, which serves as the southern border of the state. Cheboksary district is being formed, which successfully develops in terms of trade. This is facilitated by a close location to the Volga. Over the next 200 years, the territory of the county is actively building Orthodox churches and monasteries. Gradually, the city becomes a cultural, religious, military and industrial center of the region.
Geography of the region
The capital of Chuvashia is located on the Volga Upland, on the right bank of the Volga. Now on this shore is the Cheboksary Reservoir. The length of the boundaries of the city is within 80 km, of which 16 km is the embankment. The very Volga Upland is ubiquitously cut by beams and ravines, so the terrain within the city is gully. The variation in altitude varies from 50 to 200 meters.
The capital of Chuvashia on the map of the relief is shown in a more complete picture, and there you can find complete information on the hills and lowlands of this region. Gullies in the city are formed by watersheds of small rivers, once located on this territory. Because of this feature, the layout of the terrain itself turned out to be interesting: urban buildings have the form of wedges that converge towards the Volga Bay, forming a kind of amphitheater. Also thanks to the hills in Cheboksary built 5 bridges.
The capital of the Chuvash Republic is located within the temperate climatic zone. Has a continental type of climate. The formation of weather conditions in Cheboksary is influenced by cold Arctic air masses in winter and damp Atlantic in summer. In winter, the city has a stable frosty and snowy weather. The period itself lasts up to 5 months. Summer is mild, sometimes hot, with a duration of 3 months. In the spring and autumn, weather is often unstable.
Cheboksary is a region with a high percentage of humidification. Evaporation often exceeds the amount of precipitation, because of this, the temperature regime changes sharply during the day. The distribution of precipitation is also uneven. Most of them fall during the summer period of the year, falls on the city with heavy downpours. The average annual rainfall is 500 mm. The average temperature in July is + 18 ° C ... + 19 ° C, January -11 ° C ... -13 ° C.
The capital of the Chuvash Republic has an administrative status - the city district. In addition to the three administrative districts of the city (Leninsky, Moscow, Kalininsky) and the territorial administration of the Trans-Volga region, 3 townships are located within the city limits: Sosnovka, Severny, Novye Lapsary and Chandrovo.
According to the population census in 2015, the city took the 39th place in terms of the number of inhabitants in the cities of the Russian Federation. Just over 480 thousand people live in Cheboksary. By national composition, the majority of inhabitants are the indigenous population of the republic (Chuvash 62%). Less for the percentage of Russians here - 32%. Also in the city there live representatives of other nationalities: Tatars, Mari, Ukrainians, Armenians, etc.
There are two official languages: Russian and Chuvash. It is noteworthy that most of the city's population speaks Chuvash. This can confuse visitors. But the Russian language is understood here. According to the religious composition, most of the residents are Orthodox Christians.
Science, culture and industry
The capital of Chuvashia is also famous for its industrial development. There are actively developing such industries as metalworking and machine building (9 large enterprises), the food industry (4 large enterprises), electric power industry, light industry.
In addition, Cheboksary - the cultural and scientific and educational center of Chuvashia. In the city there are 5 state higher institutions, 13 branches of universities of other cities, about 20 institutions of secondary education, a large number of schools.
As for the sights, there are a lot of historical and modern monuments.
Division of the city
The capital of Chuvashia Cheboksary is conditionally divided into two halves: the left bank and the right bank. The right bank of the Volga is a historical district of the city. There are many beautiful and unique places, directly connected with the history of the city. The right bank is also the business center of the city. The left bank is full of its natural colors, parks, fountains. This is a great place to relax both locals and visitors.
The capital of the Chuvash Republic even has its own "Arbat" - it is the street of Kuptsa Efremova pedestrian, located in the center of the city. It also houses the merchant's house, which is considered an architectural monument of the XIX century. At the present time, in the walls of the mansion is a branch of the Moscow SEI.
On the street of Composers Vorobiev, in the center of the city there is an artificial Cheboksary bay. This is truly the most beautiful part of the city. On the square near the bay, city festivals, festivals and fairs are arranged. From it you can go to the shore of the Volga. On the waterfront is the central beach of the capital.
The city is famous for its Orthodox religious monuments. For example, the temple of the Holy Martyr Tatiana was built in 2006. It is located in the north-west of the city and has a majestic view. There are also ancient Orthodox churches: The Vvedensky Cathedral is considered to be the oldest temple in the city (the beginning of its construction falls on 1555) and the Church of the Ascension of Christ, built in 1758. Also in Cheboksary is still the Holy Trinity Monastery, whose construction Began on the orders of Ivan the Terrible.
Like the whole of Chuvashia, Cheboksary is a city with a developed culture. Here you can visit 8 museums and exhibition halls, telling about the history of the city and the region, theaters and even the state philharmonic society. This is what attracts tourists. They are happy to visit all the establishments in Cheboksary, buy souvenirs and take photos for memory, and then return to this city to relive the tremendous emotions from what they saw before.