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Muscles of the neck. Structure and functions

The muscle tissue is transversely striated and smooth. The neck muscles, together with the muscles of the trunk, limbs and head, belong to the group of striated nerves. According to the location of the neck muscles are divided into three groups: middle, superficial and deep. Deep in turn are divided into two subgroups: medial or prevertebral and lateral. The anterior, middle and posterior staircase muscles of the neck belong to the second subgroup. The contraction of the anterior muscle from one side results in the inclination of the neck to the side, the contraction on both sides - to tilt forward. If the spine in the cervical region is fixed, the first rib rises. The beginning of the anterior staircase is in the region of the III-VI vertebrae of the neck, and it is fixed on the first rib. The middle muscle also helps to tilt the neck forward or lifts the first rib. It depends on the place of its attachment. It starts from the appendages of the II-VII vertebrae of the neck, which run across, and is attached to the first rib, but behind the sulcus of the subclavian artery.

The back muscle raises the second rib. If it is fixed on the chest, it leads to the crook of the spinal column in the cervical region. Its beginning is the tubercles of the IV-VI vertebrae of the neck, and the end is the outer surface and the edges of the second rib from above. The muscles of the neck and head are interconnected, since the muscles entering the medial subgroup control the rotation of the head and its inclinations forward and sideways. So, the neck muscle is long from the medial subgroup leading to the incline of the neck to the side and forward. And the long muscle of the head helps to tilt forward and head, and the spine in the cervical region and helps to rotate the head. The anterior muscle of the head, respectively, leads to the inclination of the head forward, and the lateral one - to the side where it is fixed. The cervical muscles of the surface are composed of:

- the subcutaneous muscle of the neck, which, covering the closely located veins, slightly lifts the skin on the neck, it also pulls down the corner of the mouth down and out;

- sternocleidomastoid muscle. If it is cut from one side, the head turns into the other side, and if from both sides - the head is thrown back.

The median muscles of the neck are divided into those that are located above the bone of the hyoid and below it. Muscles of the sub-lingual exist in four types:

1. The muscle of the bipedal consists of two abdomen, the anterior and anterior, connected by a bridge of tendons. It leads to lowering and pulling back the lower jaw. If fixed in one position, then the hyoid bone rises.

2. The muscle of the shilo-hyoid ligament pulls the bone back, outwards and upwards.

3. The maxillo-hypoglossal muscle takes a direct part in the formation of the orifice of the oral cavity. It performs a dual function, depending on the position of the hyoid muscle: if it is fixed, it lowers the lower jaw, and if not - raises the bone hyoid.

4. Muscular chin-sublingual tightens the hyoid bone and forward, and simultaneously upwards, and if it rests on this bone, it leads to lowering of the lower jaw.

The cervical muscles of the sublingual are also of four types:

1. Muscle is forearm-hyoid, thin and long, divided into two abdominals by an intermediate tendon. Both abdomen are connected by a bridge of tendons. If the scapula is strengthened, this muscle pulls out and down the hyoid bone and at the same time the pre-tracheal plate of the cervical fascia lengthens, thereby widening the lumen of the deep cervical veins.

2. The musculature of the sternum-hyoid sublingual bone pulls downwards.

3. Musculoskeletal-thyroid pulls downward to the larynx.

4. The thyroid gland is a logical extension of the sternum-thyroid muscle. It makes possible rapprochement with the larynge of the hyoid bone, if the hyoid bone is fixed, this muscle raises the larynx.

Violation of the muscular system, provoked by various factors - stretching, bruising, swelling, inflammation, etc., can have serious consequences and require medical intervention.

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