Bronchitis - a disease that occurs with inflammation of the bronchi and accompanied by a cough. Bronchitis can arise as a primary disease, and in the form of complications after the transferred infectious diseases: influenza, angina and others. The disease manifests itself in acute and chronic form. But not only this different types of bronchitis.
Common symptoms of bronchitis
Bronchitis can differ in the variety and prevalence of inflammation, in localization, in the duration of the disease. Various external causes cause different types of bronchitis, and their symptoms are also not the same. But there are common signs that are common to all types of disease. It is weakness, severe cough, shortness of breath, sputum, headache. The temperature does not always go up. In some cases, bronchitis may occur without fever.
Bronchitis in acute form
Acute types of bronchitis are always accompanied by pronounced symptoms, it is this form that occurs with increasing temperature. The cause of acute bronchitis are bacteria or acute viral infections. Under their influence, the mucous membrane of the bronchi is broken, and, as a consequence, their conductivity is disturbed. Provoke the development of infectious bronchitis can be severe hypothermia, a prolonged stay in a zone of strong moisture, an infectious disease: influenza, acute respiratory infections or ARVI, diseases of the nasopharynx. Allergic stimuli, strong dustiness of the air, inhalation of chemical vapors can become the causative agents of the disease.
Infectious and toxic - the types of bronchitis that occur in acute form, but quickly pass under condition of proper treatment. Inattentive attitude to the ailment leads to the fact that the untreated bronchitis passes into a severe catarrhal form. This condition is characterized by high fever, a strong piercing cough with shortness of breath, and sweating. Almost always, the catarrhal form of bronchitis translates the disease into a chronic form.
Chronic bronchitis: types
This definition is given by the disease, when its symptoms manifest for longer than three months for several years. Exacerbations occur during periods of weather change, mainly in the spring and autumn, when infections and viruses occur. The main reason for the development of chronic form is incorrect or insufficient treatment of acute bronchitis.
Permanent residence in places with constant dustiness of the air, contamination with its chemical harmful substances is another reason for the progressing disease, as well as a long stay in a too damp and cold climate. These factors lead to a constant irritation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, which causes their irritation. Chronic forms of bronchitis can be caused by a genetic predisposition. The bronchitis caused by these causes is called obstructive.
Chronic forms include the smoker's bronchitis - the disease of "experienced" smokers manifests itself in a protracted morning cough.
If you do not treat chronic bronchitis, it can go into a destructive or deformed form. At this stage, the chronic inflammation of the epithelium leads to its multilayeredness and deformation. It is characterized by a protracted cough with shortness of breath.
Types of bronchitis in children
Symptoms and causes of bronchitis in children differ from the general insignificantly. Children more often than adults are subject to a form of bronchitis, such as chlamydia. It is caused by the products of the microorganisms of the genus Chlamydia. Only a laboratory blood test can reveal them. This kind of bronchitis differs with a dry, intensifying cough, sore throat, suffocation. In especially severe cases, such a disease can develop into an infectious pneumonia.
During an infectious disease, children's bronchial lumens are narrower than adults, faster clogged with mucus, and the shell begins to process it. This is how spastic bronchitis occurs in babies, which is dangerous for lung emphysema and, in case of insufficient treatment, it threatens to develop into asthma.
At the first signs of bronchitis - dry cough, shortness of breath, cyanosis of the child - you should immediately show the doctor. To relieve spasm and destroy the infection, bronchodilators, antihistamines and sedatives are prescribed.
What are the types of bronchitis that are not associated with infections and colds? Sometimes you can hear the expression "heart cough". It is nothing but a stagnant type of bronchitis, which is caused by heart failure. The poor work of the heart and circulatory system leads to stagnation of fluid not only in the bronchi, but also in the alveoli and the intermediate tissue. Patients with this form of bronchitis may have all the signs characteristic of the disease, but most often congestive bronchitis proceeds very differently: dry breathing with wheezing, cough infrequent, accompanied by large clots of sputum. The swelling of the lung tissue makes breathing difficult.
Since this bronchitis is associated with heart disease, it is better to treat it in a hospital under the supervision of doctors to stop a possible heart attack in time.
Professional or dusty - these types of bronchitis in adults are associated with specific working conditions. They are subject to miners, metallurgists. Dust, mixed with particles of chemicals, settles in the lungs and bronchi of hairdressers, chemists. The disease is chronic, seizures occur several times a year. Breathing becomes heavier, accompanied by a dry, prolonged cough, the temperature can be normal. Treatment of such a disease is a long process, which without the elimination of the main stimuli becomes very problematic.
Bronchitis caused by external stimuli can be accompanied by a number of concomitant symptoms: itching of the skin, pains in the region of the heart, heaviness in the chest. Pain can be felt even in the waist and abdomen. This form of the disease is called terry bronchitis.
Diagnosis of bronchitis
To know about what kinds of bronchitis happen, it is necessary to understand why in different cases a different treatment is prescribed. There is no universal cough remedy. Assign to yourself what helped the neighbor, can not in any case, because the pathogens of the disease are completely different. To determine the type of bronchitis, you need to see a doctor, and carry out a diagnosis. The first thing the doctor will do is to have a clinical examination: the specialist will listen to the patient's complaints and will inspect and listen to the chest with a stethoscope. Auscultation allows you to determine the nature of wheezing and breathing.
A general blood test helps determine the causative agent of the disease, and the radiography will reveal an increase in the pattern of inflamed bronchi.
Examination with a special apparatus - a bronchoscope - is prescribed in chronic forms to determine the type of disease.
Treatment of bronchitis
Different types of bronchitis and treatment provide for different. Therefore, with an increasing cough, weakness, you need to see a doctor for diagnosis and prescriptions. Basic rules of treatment:
- Acute bronchitis with a temperature and a headache require bed rest. The organism needs rest.
- The department of sputum and mucus promotes abundant drinking: natural juices, herbal teas, compotes, water without gas.
- The patient needs to ensure constant access to fresh air - to ventilate the room more often.
- The menu should consist of light foods, the basis of the diet - fresh fruit, dishes from vegetables.
- During this period, you should take the recommended immunity, vitamins.
- To speed up the allocation of phlegm use the prescribed drugs of the pharmacological industry, folk remedies and methods: mustard, rubbing, inhalation.
- Antiviral drugs and antibiotics are prescribed only after determining the causative factor of bronchitis. The self-administration of these medicines can only exacerbate the disease.
- Antipyretics are usually prescribed when the temperature rises above 38 °. It is not recommended to lower the lower temperature - this can reduce the immunity. You can alleviate the condition with the help of acetic compress or wiping.
Prevention of bronchitis
Preventing a disease is better than curing it. The main preventive measures are banal, but this is no less relevant: a healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, activity, exercise, hardening of the body. Such a habit as smoking should be forgotten forever. The presence in a smoky environment should be minimized. Especially it is necessary to protect your breathing organs for persons with a genetic predisposition, and for those whose professional activity is associated with unfavorable working conditions. In such cases, preventive examinations should be carried out regularly. Prevention of bronchitis is useful in areas with healing air. Well also act in this plan of inhalation with the use of medicinal herbs, pine extract.